Field cancerization refers to areas of grossly normal epithelium that exhibit increased risk for tumor occurrence. Unfortunately, elucidation of the locoregional changes that contribute to increased tumor risk is dif ficult due to the inability to visualize the field. In this study, we use a noninvasive optical-based imaging approach to detail spatiotemporal changes in subclinical hyperemia that occur during experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis. After acute inflammation from 10 weeks of UVB irradiation subsides, small areas of focal hyperemia form and were seen to persist and expand long after cessation of UVB irradiation. We show that these persistent early hyperemic foci reliably predict sites of angiogenesis and overlying tumor formation. More than 96% of the tumors (57 of 59) that developed following UVB or 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene/phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (DMBA/PMA) treatment developed in sites of preexisting hyperemic foci. Hyperemic foci were multifocal and heterogeneously distributed and represented a minor fraction of the carcinogen-treated skin surface (10.3% of the imaging area in vehicle-treated animals). Finally, we also assessed the ability of the anti-inflammatory agent, celecoxib, to suppress hyperemia formation during photocarcinogenesis. The chemopreventive activity of celecoxib was shown to correlate with its ability to reduce the area of skin that exhibit these hyperemic foci, reducing the area of imaged skin containing hyperemic foci by 49.1%. Thus, we propose that a hyperemic switch can be exploited to visualize the cancerization field very early in the course of cutaneous carcinogenesis and provides insight into the chemopreventive activity of the anti-inflammatory agent celecoxib.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research