Speed of processing training protects self-rated health in older adults: Enduring effects observed in the multi-site ACTIVE randomized controlled trial

Fredric D. Wolinsky, Henry Mahncke, Mark W. Vander Weg, Rene Martin, Frederick W. Unverzagt, Karlene K. Ball, Richard N. Jones, Sharon L. Tennstedt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

63 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: We evaluated the effects of cognitive training on self-rated health at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years post-baseline. Methods: In the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly) randomized controlled trial, 2,802 older adults (65 years) were randomly assigned to memory, reasoning, speed of processing, or no-contact control intervention groups. Complete data were available for 1,804 (64%) of the 2,802 participants at five years. A propensity score model was adjusted for attrition bias. The self-rated health question was coded using the Diehr et al. (2001) transformation (E = 95/VG = 90/G = 80/F = 30/P = 15), and analyzed with change-score regression models. Results: The speed of processing (vs. no-contact control) group had statistically significant improvements (or protective effects) on changes in self-rated health at the 2, 3 and 5 year follow-ups. The 5-year improvement was 2.8 points (p = 0.03). No significant differences were observed in the memory or reasoning groups at any time. Conclusion: The speed of processing intervention significantly protected self-rated health in ACTIVE, with the average benefit equivalent to half the difference between excellent vs. very good health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)470-478
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2010

Keywords

  • Cognitive training
  • Memory
  • Randomized controlled trial
  • Reasoning
  • Self-rated health
  • Speed of processing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Gerontology
  • Clinical Psychology

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