Significant progress has been made in the standardization of bladder neoplasm classification and reporting. Accurate staging using the American Joint Committee on CancerInternational Union Against Cancer (AJCCUICC) TNM system is essential for patient management, and has been reinforced by clinical evidence in recent years. It is now recognized that superficial bladder carcinomas are a heterogenous group of tumors with diverse biological and clinical manifestations. The term superficial, therefore, is no longer used for bladder tumor nomenclature. Recognition of diagnostic pitfalls associated with lamina propria invasion is critical for the evaluation of bladder tumor specimens. Neither the 1973 nor the 2004 WHO grading system appears to be useful for predicting the clinical outcome of invasive urothelial carcinoma. This review will discuss recent progress and controversial issues on the staging and substaging of bladder carcinomas. Essential elements for handling and reporting of bladder tumor specimens will also be discussed.
- Neoplasia classification
- PT1 substaging
- Specimen handling and reporting
- TNM staging
- Urinary bladder
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine