Objective: To evaluate strabismus associated with pediatric pseudophakia. Design: Retrospective case series. Participants: Charts of 94 pediatric patients who underwent cataract extraction with primary intraocular lens implantation from 1990 to 2003 at Indiana University School of Medicine were reviewed. Only those patients who had pre-cataract extraction and post-cataract extraction alignment measurements were included. Methods: Data were collected on gender, race, age at presentation, age at time of cataract surgery, and type of cataract. Pre-cataract extraction and post-cataract extraction data on visual acuity (VA), alignment, and amblyopia were recorded. Results of strabismus surgery were also evaluated. Main Outcome Measures: Frequency, type and amount of strabismus, and results of strabismus surgery. Results: Ninety-four pediatric pseudophakia patients were identified, and 37 (39%) had strabismus. Exotropia (46%) was more common than esotropia (41%). Factors not associated with the development of strabismus included age at presentation, interval between diagnosis and cataract extraction, race, and type of cataract. Factors statistically associated with the development of strabismus include pre-cataract extraction and post-cataract extraction VA, type of strabismus, and post-cataract extraction amblyopia. The mean pre-cataract extraction deviation of the group that had strabismus surgery was 22 prism diopters, and 75% were aligned at the last examination (mean follow up, 24 months). Conclusion: Strabismus occurs more frequently in pseudophakic pediatric patients than in the general pediatric population. Pseudophakic children should be monitored carefully for the development of strabismus, which in many cases can be successfully treated.
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