Studies on the mechanism of action of tiazofurin metabolism to an analog of NAD with potent IMP dehydrogenase-inhibitory activity

David A. Cooney, Hiremagalur N. Jayaram, Robert I. Glazer, James A. Kelley, Victor E. Marquez, Gulilat Gebeyehu, Anne C. Van Cott, Leonard A. Zwelling, David G. Johns

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Following the parenteral administration of tiazofurin, 2-β-d-ribofuranosyl-thiazole-4-carboxamide (thiazole ncleoside, TR), a potent but reversible inhibitor of IMP dehydrogenase is generated in subcutaneous nodules of the P388 leukemia. The compound responsible for this effect has been isolated from homogenates of the tumor by ion-exchange HPLC, and its presence monitored by enzyme-inhibition assay. The inhibitor has also been prepared by incubation of tiazofurin with P388 cells in culture. Chromatographically, the inhibitory principle exhibits a moderately strong set negative charge at pH 3, and elutes in the general vicinity of the nucleoside-5′-diphosphates; its absorption maximum in aqueous solution (pH 7) lies at 252 nm. Exposure of the molecule to snake-venom phosphodiesterase or to nucleotide pyrophosphatase destroys its inhibitory potency, whereas other phosphodeisterases are either less effective or inert. Since these results suggested that the anabolite might be a dinucleotide with a phosphodiester linkage of the kind found in NAD, attempts were made to synthesize such an analogue from the 5′-monophosphate of thiazole nucleoside and ATP-Mg2+, using a purified preparation of NAD pyrophosphorylase; modest yields were obtained of a compound with chromatographic, spectral and enzyme-inhibitory properties identical to those of the material isolated from P388 tumor nodules. This enzyme-synthesized material was radioactive when [3H]ATP was used as co-substrate, and yielded both AMP and thiazole nucleoside-5′-monophsophate on treatment with phosphodiesterase. It resisted attack by NAD glycohydrolase. An apparently identical dinucleotide was also synthesized chemically by means of the Khorana condensation. Mass spectral analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance studies with homogeneous preparations of both the enzymically and chemically synthesized compound were compatible with its being a dinucleotide in which the nicotinamide of NAD has been replaced by thiazole-4-carboxamide. Versus IMP dehydrogenase, the dinucleotide exhibited a K1 of 2 × 10-7 M and was non-competitive with NAD as the variable substrate. Other NAD utilizing enzymes, including representative dehydrogenases and poly ADP ribose polyemrase, were, by comparison to mammalian IMPD, resistant to inhibition by TAD. The properties of this novel dinucleotide are compared and contrasted with those of analogs of NAD containign modifications in the pyridine, adenine or ribofuranose rings, as well as in the pyrophosphate bridge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)271-303
Number of pages33
JournalAdvances in Enzyme Regulation
Issue numberC
StatePublished - 1983

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cancer Research

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    Cooney, D. A., Jayaram, H. N., Glazer, R. I., Kelley, J. A., Marquez, V. E., Gebeyehu, G., Van Cott, A. C., Zwelling, L. A., & Johns, D. G. (1983). Studies on the mechanism of action of tiazofurin metabolism to an analog of NAD with potent IMP dehydrogenase-inhibitory activity. Advances in Enzyme Regulation, 21(C), 271-303.