Surgery in disorders of sex development (DSD) with a gender issue

If (why), when, and how?

Pierre D E Mouriquand, Daniela Brindusa Gorduza, Claire Lise Gay, Heino F L Meyer-Bahlburg, Linda Baker, Laurence S. Baskin, Claire Bouvattier, Luis Braga, Anthony C. Caldamone, Lise Duranteau, Alaa El Ghoneimi, Terry W. Hensle, Piet Hoebeke, Martin Kaefer, Nicolas Kalfa, Thomas F. Kolon, Gianantonio Manzoni, Pierre Yves Mure, Agneta Nordenskjöld, J. L. Pippi Salle & 10 others Dix Phillip Poppas, Philip G. Ransley, Richard C. Rink, Romao Rodrigo, Léon Sann, Justine Schober, Hisham Sibai, Amy Wisniewski, Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, Peter Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ten years after the consensus meeting on disorders of sex development (DSD), genital surgery continues to raise questions and criticisms concerning its indications, its technical aspects, timing and evaluation. This standpoint details each distinct situation and its possible management in 5 main groups of DSD patients with atypical genitalia: the 46,XX DSD group (congenital adrenal hyperplasia); the heterogeneous 46,XY DSD group (gonadal dysgenesis, disorders of steroidogenesis, target tissues impairments ...); gonosomic mosaicisms (45,X/46,XY patients); ovo-testicular DSD; and "non-hormonal/non chromosomal" DSD. Questions are summarized for each DSD group with the support of literature and the feed-back of several world experts.Given the complexity and heterogeneity of presentation there is no consensus regarding the indications, the timing, the procedure nor the evaluation of outcome of DSD surgery. There are, however, some issues on which most experts would agree: 1) The need for identifying centres of expertise with a multidisciplinary approach; 2) A conservative management of the gonads in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome at least until puberty although some studies expressed concerns about the heightened tumour risk in this group; 3) To avoid vaginal dilatation in children after surgical reconstruction; 4) To keep asymptomatic mullerian remnants during childhood; 5) To remove confirmed streak gonads when Y material is present; 6) It is likely that 46,XY cloacal exstrophy, aphallia and severe micropenis would do best raised as male although this is based on limited outcome data. There is general acknowledgement among experts that timing, the choice of the individual and irreversibility of surgical procedures are sources of concerns. There is, however, little evidence provided regarding the impact of non-treated DSD during childhood for the individual development, the parents, society and the risk of stigmatization. The low level of evidence should lead to design collaborative prospective studies involving all parties and using consensual protocols of evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Pediatric Urology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Dec 15 2015

Fingerprint

Disorders of Sex Development
Interpersonal Relations
Gonads
Gonadal Disorders
Consensus
XX Disorders of Sex Development 46
XY Disorders of Sex Development 46
Chromosome Disorders
Gonadal Dysgenesis
Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Stereotyping
Mosaicism
Genitalia
Puberty
Dilatation
Parents
Prospective Studies

Keywords

  • 17β hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase
  • 17βHSD
  • 5α reductase deficiency
  • AIS
  • Androgen insensitivity syndrome
  • CAH
  • Chromosomal anomalies
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  • Disorders of sex development
  • DSD
  • Genital surgery in children
  • Gonadal dysgenesis
  • Gonadal dysplasia
  • Hypospadias
  • Micropenis
  • Mixed gonadal dysgenesis
  • Ovo-testicular DSD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Mouriquand, P. D. E., Gorduza, D. B., Gay, C. L., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Baker, L., Baskin, L. S., ... Lee, P. (Accepted/In press). Surgery in disorders of sex development (DSD) with a gender issue: If (why), when, and how? Journal of Pediatric Urology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.04.001

Surgery in disorders of sex development (DSD) with a gender issue : If (why), when, and how? / Mouriquand, Pierre D E; Gorduza, Daniela Brindusa; Gay, Claire Lise; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Baker, Linda; Baskin, Laurence S.; Bouvattier, Claire; Braga, Luis; Caldamone, Anthony C.; Duranteau, Lise; El Ghoneimi, Alaa; Hensle, Terry W.; Hoebeke, Piet; Kaefer, Martin; Kalfa, Nicolas; Kolon, Thomas F.; Manzoni, Gianantonio; Mure, Pierre Yves; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Pippi Salle, J. L.; Poppas, Dix Phillip; Ransley, Philip G.; Rink, Richard C.; Rodrigo, Romao; Sann, Léon; Schober, Justine; Sibai, Hisham; Wisniewski, Amy; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P.; Lee, Peter.

In: Journal of Pediatric Urology, 15.12.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mouriquand, PDE, Gorduza, DB, Gay, CL, Meyer-Bahlburg, HFL, Baker, L, Baskin, LS, Bouvattier, C, Braga, L, Caldamone, AC, Duranteau, L, El Ghoneimi, A, Hensle, TW, Hoebeke, P, Kaefer, M, Kalfa, N, Kolon, TF, Manzoni, G, Mure, PY, Nordenskjöld, A, Pippi Salle, JL, Poppas, DP, Ransley, PG, Rink, RC, Rodrigo, R, Sann, L, Schober, J, Sibai, H, Wisniewski, A, Wolffenbuttel, KP & Lee, P 2015, 'Surgery in disorders of sex development (DSD) with a gender issue: If (why), when, and how?', Journal of Pediatric Urology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.04.001
Mouriquand, Pierre D E ; Gorduza, Daniela Brindusa ; Gay, Claire Lise ; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L ; Baker, Linda ; Baskin, Laurence S. ; Bouvattier, Claire ; Braga, Luis ; Caldamone, Anthony C. ; Duranteau, Lise ; El Ghoneimi, Alaa ; Hensle, Terry W. ; Hoebeke, Piet ; Kaefer, Martin ; Kalfa, Nicolas ; Kolon, Thomas F. ; Manzoni, Gianantonio ; Mure, Pierre Yves ; Nordenskjöld, Agneta ; Pippi Salle, J. L. ; Poppas, Dix Phillip ; Ransley, Philip G. ; Rink, Richard C. ; Rodrigo, Romao ; Sann, Léon ; Schober, Justine ; Sibai, Hisham ; Wisniewski, Amy ; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P. ; Lee, Peter. / Surgery in disorders of sex development (DSD) with a gender issue : If (why), when, and how?. In: Journal of Pediatric Urology. 2015.
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AU - Mouriquand, Pierre D E

AU - Gorduza, Daniela Brindusa

AU - Gay, Claire Lise

AU - Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L

AU - Baker, Linda

AU - Baskin, Laurence S.

AU - Bouvattier, Claire

AU - Braga, Luis

AU - Caldamone, Anthony C.

AU - Duranteau, Lise

AU - El Ghoneimi, Alaa

AU - Hensle, Terry W.

AU - Hoebeke, Piet

AU - Kaefer, Martin

AU - Kalfa, Nicolas

AU - Kolon, Thomas F.

AU - Manzoni, Gianantonio

AU - Mure, Pierre Yves

AU - Nordenskjöld, Agneta

AU - Pippi Salle, J. L.

AU - Poppas, Dix Phillip

AU - Ransley, Philip G.

AU - Rink, Richard C.

AU - Rodrigo, Romao

AU - Sann, Léon

AU - Schober, Justine

AU - Sibai, Hisham

AU - Wisniewski, Amy

AU - Wolffenbuttel, Katja P.

AU - Lee, Peter

PY - 2015/12/15

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N2 - Ten years after the consensus meeting on disorders of sex development (DSD), genital surgery continues to raise questions and criticisms concerning its indications, its technical aspects, timing and evaluation. This standpoint details each distinct situation and its possible management in 5 main groups of DSD patients with atypical genitalia: the 46,XX DSD group (congenital adrenal hyperplasia); the heterogeneous 46,XY DSD group (gonadal dysgenesis, disorders of steroidogenesis, target tissues impairments ...); gonosomic mosaicisms (45,X/46,XY patients); ovo-testicular DSD; and "non-hormonal/non chromosomal" DSD. Questions are summarized for each DSD group with the support of literature and the feed-back of several world experts.Given the complexity and heterogeneity of presentation there is no consensus regarding the indications, the timing, the procedure nor the evaluation of outcome of DSD surgery. There are, however, some issues on which most experts would agree: 1) The need for identifying centres of expertise with a multidisciplinary approach; 2) A conservative management of the gonads in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome at least until puberty although some studies expressed concerns about the heightened tumour risk in this group; 3) To avoid vaginal dilatation in children after surgical reconstruction; 4) To keep asymptomatic mullerian remnants during childhood; 5) To remove confirmed streak gonads when Y material is present; 6) It is likely that 46,XY cloacal exstrophy, aphallia and severe micropenis would do best raised as male although this is based on limited outcome data. There is general acknowledgement among experts that timing, the choice of the individual and irreversibility of surgical procedures are sources of concerns. There is, however, little evidence provided regarding the impact of non-treated DSD during childhood for the individual development, the parents, society and the risk of stigmatization. The low level of evidence should lead to design collaborative prospective studies involving all parties and using consensual protocols of evaluation.

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KW - 17βHSD

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KW - AIS

KW - Androgen insensitivity syndrome

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KW - Chromosomal anomalies

KW - Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

KW - Disorders of sex development

KW - DSD

KW - Genital surgery in children

KW - Gonadal dysgenesis

KW - Gonadal dysplasia

KW - Hypospadias

KW - Micropenis

KW - Mixed gonadal dysgenesis

KW - Ovo-testicular DSD

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