Background. The objective of this study was to review our surgical strategy in children with double outlet right ventricle and to assess risk factors for early and late mortality and reoperation. Methods. Patients (n = 124; June 1980 to January 2000; age range, 7 days to 16 years; mean, 2.8 years) who underwent repair of double outlet right ventricle. The patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 47) had noncomplex patients with atrioventricular concordance, a single ventricular septal defect, balanced ventricles, no straddling atrioventricular valves, and no major pulmonary artery anomalies. Group 2 (n = 39) included patients with double outlet right ventricle and a subpulmonary ventricular septal defect (Taussig-Bing). Group 3 (n = 38) had patients with complex anomalies including straddling atrioventricular valves, atrioventricular septal defects or a hypoplastic valve or ventricle, or a combination of atrioventricular septal defects and hypoplastic valve or ventricle. Results. Four types of definitive repairs were performed. (1) intraventricular tunnel repair with a baffle from the left ventricle to the aorta (n = 53); (2) use of a valved or nonvalved conduit (n = 20); (3) arterial switch operation with a patch committing the left ventricle to the neo-aorta (n = 16); and (4) cavopulmonary shunt and Fontan procedures (n = 33). Two patients with late postoperative cardiomyopathy had heart transplantation. Potential risk factors included location of the largest ventricular septal defect, presence of additional ventricular septal defects, ventricular outflow obstruction or hypoplasia, or both ventricular outflow obstruction and hypoplasia, previous palliation, and type of definitive operation. There were six early deaths (4.8%) and four late deaths (3.2%), and two heart transplants (1.6%). Overall 15-year survival was 95.8%, 89.7%, and 89.5% for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p = 0.08). Thirteen patients (11.4%) have required 15 reoperations. Mean follow-up for survivors was 76.6 ± 52.8 months. Up-to-date follow-ups are available on 114 surviving patients. Ninety-five of these patients (83.3%) were in New York Heart Association class I, and the remaining 19 patients (16.7%) were in New York Heart Association class II. Freedom from reoperation was 87%, 72%, and 100% at 15 years for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p = 0.11), Conclusions. Survival was high for all patients with double outlet right ventricle undergoing intraventricular tunnel repair, arterial switch operation, and repair with a conduit or a modified Fontan procedure. Careful attention to preoperative anatomy dictates the best surgical approach and will enhance outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine