Syntaxin 4 up-regulation increases efficiency of insulin release in pancreatic islets from humans with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus

Eunjin Oh, Natalie D. Stull, Raghu Mirmira, Debbie C. Thurmond

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20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context: Evidence suggests that dysfunctional β-cell insulin release precedes type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D, respectively) and that enhancing the efficiency of insulin release from pancreatic islet β-cells may delay/prevent these diseases. We took advantage of the rare opportunity to test this paradigm using islets from human type 2 diabetic individuals. Objectives: Insulin release capacity is limited by the abundance of fusogenic soluble N-ethylmaleimide- sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. Because enrichment of Syntaxin 4, a plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein, enhances β-cell function in mice, we investigated its potential to restore functional insulin secretion to human diabetic islets. Design: Human islets from type 2 diabetic and healthy individuals transduced to overexpress Syntaxin 4 were examined by perifusion analysis. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic recipient mice transplanted with Syntaxin 4-enriched or normal islets were assessed for rescue of diabetes in vivo. Results: Syntaxin 4 up-regulation inhumanislets enhanced-cell function by approximately 2-fold in each phase of secretion. Syntaxin 4 abundance in type 2 diabetes islets was approximately 70% reduced, and replenishment significantly improved insulin secretion. Islets from Syntaxin 4 overexpressing transgenic mice more effectively attenuated streptozotocin-induced diabetes than did control islets. Conclusions: These data show that the addition of just Syntaxin 4 is sufficient to significantly improve insulin secretory function to human type 2 diabetes islets retaining low levels of residual function and provide proof of concept that by building a more efficient β-cell with up-regulated Syntaxin 4, fewer islets may be required per patient, clearing a major barrier in transplantation therapy.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume99
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Qa-SNARE Proteins
Medical problems
Islets of Langerhans
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Up-Regulation
Insulin
SNARE Proteins
Streptozocin
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus
Cell membranes
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Transgenic Mice
Membrane Proteins
Proteins
Transplantation
Cell Membrane

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

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title = "Syntaxin 4 up-regulation increases efficiency of insulin release in pancreatic islets from humans with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus",
abstract = "Context: Evidence suggests that dysfunctional β-cell insulin release precedes type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D, respectively) and that enhancing the efficiency of insulin release from pancreatic islet β-cells may delay/prevent these diseases. We took advantage of the rare opportunity to test this paradigm using islets from human type 2 diabetic individuals. Objectives: Insulin release capacity is limited by the abundance of fusogenic soluble N-ethylmaleimide- sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. Because enrichment of Syntaxin 4, a plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein, enhances β-cell function in mice, we investigated its potential to restore functional insulin secretion to human diabetic islets. Design: Human islets from type 2 diabetic and healthy individuals transduced to overexpress Syntaxin 4 were examined by perifusion analysis. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic recipient mice transplanted with Syntaxin 4-enriched or normal islets were assessed for rescue of diabetes in vivo. Results: Syntaxin 4 up-regulation inhumanislets enhanced-cell function by approximately 2-fold in each phase of secretion. Syntaxin 4 abundance in type 2 diabetes islets was approximately 70{\%} reduced, and replenishment significantly improved insulin secretion. Islets from Syntaxin 4 overexpressing transgenic mice more effectively attenuated streptozotocin-induced diabetes than did control islets. Conclusions: These data show that the addition of just Syntaxin 4 is sufficient to significantly improve insulin secretory function to human type 2 diabetes islets retaining low levels of residual function and provide proof of concept that by building a more efficient β-cell with up-regulated Syntaxin 4, fewer islets may be required per patient, clearing a major barrier in transplantation therapy.",
author = "Eunjin Oh and Stull, {Natalie D.} and Raghu Mirmira and Thurmond, {Debbie C.}",
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T1 - Syntaxin 4 up-regulation increases efficiency of insulin release in pancreatic islets from humans with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus

AU - Oh, Eunjin

AU - Stull, Natalie D.

AU - Mirmira, Raghu

AU - Thurmond, Debbie C.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Context: Evidence suggests that dysfunctional β-cell insulin release precedes type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D, respectively) and that enhancing the efficiency of insulin release from pancreatic islet β-cells may delay/prevent these diseases. We took advantage of the rare opportunity to test this paradigm using islets from human type 2 diabetic individuals. Objectives: Insulin release capacity is limited by the abundance of fusogenic soluble N-ethylmaleimide- sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. Because enrichment of Syntaxin 4, a plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein, enhances β-cell function in mice, we investigated its potential to restore functional insulin secretion to human diabetic islets. Design: Human islets from type 2 diabetic and healthy individuals transduced to overexpress Syntaxin 4 were examined by perifusion analysis. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic recipient mice transplanted with Syntaxin 4-enriched or normal islets were assessed for rescue of diabetes in vivo. Results: Syntaxin 4 up-regulation inhumanislets enhanced-cell function by approximately 2-fold in each phase of secretion. Syntaxin 4 abundance in type 2 diabetes islets was approximately 70% reduced, and replenishment significantly improved insulin secretion. Islets from Syntaxin 4 overexpressing transgenic mice more effectively attenuated streptozotocin-induced diabetes than did control islets. Conclusions: These data show that the addition of just Syntaxin 4 is sufficient to significantly improve insulin secretory function to human type 2 diabetes islets retaining low levels of residual function and provide proof of concept that by building a more efficient β-cell with up-regulated Syntaxin 4, fewer islets may be required per patient, clearing a major barrier in transplantation therapy.

AB - Context: Evidence suggests that dysfunctional β-cell insulin release precedes type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D, respectively) and that enhancing the efficiency of insulin release from pancreatic islet β-cells may delay/prevent these diseases. We took advantage of the rare opportunity to test this paradigm using islets from human type 2 diabetic individuals. Objectives: Insulin release capacity is limited by the abundance of fusogenic soluble N-ethylmaleimide- sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. Because enrichment of Syntaxin 4, a plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein, enhances β-cell function in mice, we investigated its potential to restore functional insulin secretion to human diabetic islets. Design: Human islets from type 2 diabetic and healthy individuals transduced to overexpress Syntaxin 4 were examined by perifusion analysis. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic recipient mice transplanted with Syntaxin 4-enriched or normal islets were assessed for rescue of diabetes in vivo. Results: Syntaxin 4 up-regulation inhumanislets enhanced-cell function by approximately 2-fold in each phase of secretion. Syntaxin 4 abundance in type 2 diabetes islets was approximately 70% reduced, and replenishment significantly improved insulin secretion. Islets from Syntaxin 4 overexpressing transgenic mice more effectively attenuated streptozotocin-induced diabetes than did control islets. Conclusions: These data show that the addition of just Syntaxin 4 is sufficient to significantly improve insulin secretory function to human type 2 diabetes islets retaining low levels of residual function and provide proof of concept that by building a more efficient β-cell with up-regulated Syntaxin 4, fewer islets may be required per patient, clearing a major barrier in transplantation therapy.

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