Synthesis and biological evaluation of nonclassical 2,4-diamino-5- methylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines with novel side chain substituents as potential inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductases

Aleem Gangjee, Anil Vasudevan, Sherry Queener

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nine novel 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-6-substituted-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines, 2-10, were synthesized as potential inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase (pcDHFR) and Toxoplasma gondii dihydrofolate reductase (tgDHFR). Compounds 2-5 were designed as conformationally restricted analogues of trimetrexate (TMQ), in which rotation around τ3 was constrained by incorporation of the side chain nitrogen as part of an indoline or an indole ring. Analogue 6, which has an extra atom between the side chain nitrogen and the phenyl ring, has its nitrogen as part of a tetrahydroisoquinoline ring. Analogues 7-9 are epiroprim (Ro 11-8958) analogues and contain a pyrrole ring as part of the side chain substitution on the phenyl ring similar to epiroprim. These analogues were designed to investigate the role of the pyrrole substitution on the phenyl ring of 2,4- diamino-5-methyl-6-(anilinomethyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines. Molecular modeling indicated that a pyrrole substituent in the ortho position of the side chain phenyl ring was most likely to interact with pcDHFR in a manner similar to the pyrrole moiety of epiroprim. Analogue 10, in which a phenyl ring replaced a methoxy group, was synthesized to determine the contribution of a phenyl ring on selectivity, lipophilicity, and cell penetration. The synthesis of analogues 2-4 was achieved via reductive amination of 2,4- diamino-5-methyl 6-carboxaldehyde with the appropriately substituted indolines. The indolines were obtained from the corresponding indoles via NaCNBH3 reductions. Analogues 5-10 were synthesized by nucleophilic displacement of 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-6-(bromemethyl)-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine with the 5-methoxyindolyl anion, 6,7-dimethoxytetrahydroisoquinoline, the appropriately substituted pyrroloaniline or 2-methoxy-5-phenylaniline. The pyrroloanilines were synthesized in two steps by treating the substituted nitroanilines with 2,5-dimethoxy-tetrahydrofuran to afford the nitropyrrole intermediates, followed by reduction of the nitro group with Raney Ni. The analogues were more potent than trimethoprim and epiroprim and more selective than TMQ and piritrexim against pcDHFR and tgDHFR. Compounds 5 and 10 had IC50 values of 1 and 0.64 μM, respectively, for the inhibition of the growth of T. gondii cells in culture, and showed excellent culture IC50/enzyme IC50 ratios, which were correlated with their calculated log P values, indicating a direct relationship between calculated lipephilicity and cell penetration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)479-485
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Medicinal Chemistry
Volume40
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 14 1997

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Folic Acid Antagonists
Pyrimidines
Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase
Pyrroles
Pneumocystis carinii
Toxoplasma
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Nitrogen
Substitution reactions
Trimetrexate
Tetrahydroisoquinolines
Indoles
Amination
Trimethoprim
Molecular modeling
Anions
Cell Culture Techniques
epiroprim
Atoms
Enzymes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry

Cite this

@article{d7f108ab808549caba8cd4d3fff1adb4,
title = "Synthesis and biological evaluation of nonclassical 2,4-diamino-5- methylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines with novel side chain substituents as potential inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductases",
abstract = "Nine novel 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-6-substituted-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines, 2-10, were synthesized as potential inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase (pcDHFR) and Toxoplasma gondii dihydrofolate reductase (tgDHFR). Compounds 2-5 were designed as conformationally restricted analogues of trimetrexate (TMQ), in which rotation around τ3 was constrained by incorporation of the side chain nitrogen as part of an indoline or an indole ring. Analogue 6, which has an extra atom between the side chain nitrogen and the phenyl ring, has its nitrogen as part of a tetrahydroisoquinoline ring. Analogues 7-9 are epiroprim (Ro 11-8958) analogues and contain a pyrrole ring as part of the side chain substitution on the phenyl ring similar to epiroprim. These analogues were designed to investigate the role of the pyrrole substitution on the phenyl ring of 2,4- diamino-5-methyl-6-(anilinomethyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines. Molecular modeling indicated that a pyrrole substituent in the ortho position of the side chain phenyl ring was most likely to interact with pcDHFR in a manner similar to the pyrrole moiety of epiroprim. Analogue 10, in which a phenyl ring replaced a methoxy group, was synthesized to determine the contribution of a phenyl ring on selectivity, lipophilicity, and cell penetration. The synthesis of analogues 2-4 was achieved via reductive amination of 2,4- diamino-5-methyl 6-carboxaldehyde with the appropriately substituted indolines. The indolines were obtained from the corresponding indoles via NaCNBH3 reductions. Analogues 5-10 were synthesized by nucleophilic displacement of 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-6-(bromemethyl)-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine with the 5-methoxyindolyl anion, 6,7-dimethoxytetrahydroisoquinoline, the appropriately substituted pyrroloaniline or 2-methoxy-5-phenylaniline. The pyrroloanilines were synthesized in two steps by treating the substituted nitroanilines with 2,5-dimethoxy-tetrahydrofuran to afford the nitropyrrole intermediates, followed by reduction of the nitro group with Raney Ni. The analogues were more potent than trimethoprim and epiroprim and more selective than TMQ and piritrexim against pcDHFR and tgDHFR. Compounds 5 and 10 had IC50 values of 1 and 0.64 μM, respectively, for the inhibition of the growth of T. gondii cells in culture, and showed excellent culture IC50/enzyme IC50 ratios, which were correlated with their calculated log P values, indicating a direct relationship between calculated lipephilicity and cell penetration.",
author = "Aleem Gangjee and Anil Vasudevan and Sherry Queener",
year = "1997",
month = "2",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1021/jm960734f",
language = "English",
volume = "40",
pages = "479--485",
journal = "Journal of Medicinal Chemistry",
issn = "0022-2623",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "4",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Synthesis and biological evaluation of nonclassical 2,4-diamino-5- methylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines with novel side chain substituents as potential inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductases

AU - Gangjee, Aleem

AU - Vasudevan, Anil

AU - Queener, Sherry

PY - 1997/2/14

Y1 - 1997/2/14

N2 - Nine novel 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-6-substituted-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines, 2-10, were synthesized as potential inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase (pcDHFR) and Toxoplasma gondii dihydrofolate reductase (tgDHFR). Compounds 2-5 were designed as conformationally restricted analogues of trimetrexate (TMQ), in which rotation around τ3 was constrained by incorporation of the side chain nitrogen as part of an indoline or an indole ring. Analogue 6, which has an extra atom between the side chain nitrogen and the phenyl ring, has its nitrogen as part of a tetrahydroisoquinoline ring. Analogues 7-9 are epiroprim (Ro 11-8958) analogues and contain a pyrrole ring as part of the side chain substitution on the phenyl ring similar to epiroprim. These analogues were designed to investigate the role of the pyrrole substitution on the phenyl ring of 2,4- diamino-5-methyl-6-(anilinomethyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines. Molecular modeling indicated that a pyrrole substituent in the ortho position of the side chain phenyl ring was most likely to interact with pcDHFR in a manner similar to the pyrrole moiety of epiroprim. Analogue 10, in which a phenyl ring replaced a methoxy group, was synthesized to determine the contribution of a phenyl ring on selectivity, lipophilicity, and cell penetration. The synthesis of analogues 2-4 was achieved via reductive amination of 2,4- diamino-5-methyl 6-carboxaldehyde with the appropriately substituted indolines. The indolines were obtained from the corresponding indoles via NaCNBH3 reductions. Analogues 5-10 were synthesized by nucleophilic displacement of 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-6-(bromemethyl)-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine with the 5-methoxyindolyl anion, 6,7-dimethoxytetrahydroisoquinoline, the appropriately substituted pyrroloaniline or 2-methoxy-5-phenylaniline. The pyrroloanilines were synthesized in two steps by treating the substituted nitroanilines with 2,5-dimethoxy-tetrahydrofuran to afford the nitropyrrole intermediates, followed by reduction of the nitro group with Raney Ni. The analogues were more potent than trimethoprim and epiroprim and more selective than TMQ and piritrexim against pcDHFR and tgDHFR. Compounds 5 and 10 had IC50 values of 1 and 0.64 μM, respectively, for the inhibition of the growth of T. gondii cells in culture, and showed excellent culture IC50/enzyme IC50 ratios, which were correlated with their calculated log P values, indicating a direct relationship between calculated lipephilicity and cell penetration.

AB - Nine novel 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-6-substituted-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines, 2-10, were synthesized as potential inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase (pcDHFR) and Toxoplasma gondii dihydrofolate reductase (tgDHFR). Compounds 2-5 were designed as conformationally restricted analogues of trimetrexate (TMQ), in which rotation around τ3 was constrained by incorporation of the side chain nitrogen as part of an indoline or an indole ring. Analogue 6, which has an extra atom between the side chain nitrogen and the phenyl ring, has its nitrogen as part of a tetrahydroisoquinoline ring. Analogues 7-9 are epiroprim (Ro 11-8958) analogues and contain a pyrrole ring as part of the side chain substitution on the phenyl ring similar to epiroprim. These analogues were designed to investigate the role of the pyrrole substitution on the phenyl ring of 2,4- diamino-5-methyl-6-(anilinomethyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines. Molecular modeling indicated that a pyrrole substituent in the ortho position of the side chain phenyl ring was most likely to interact with pcDHFR in a manner similar to the pyrrole moiety of epiroprim. Analogue 10, in which a phenyl ring replaced a methoxy group, was synthesized to determine the contribution of a phenyl ring on selectivity, lipophilicity, and cell penetration. The synthesis of analogues 2-4 was achieved via reductive amination of 2,4- diamino-5-methyl 6-carboxaldehyde with the appropriately substituted indolines. The indolines were obtained from the corresponding indoles via NaCNBH3 reductions. Analogues 5-10 were synthesized by nucleophilic displacement of 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-6-(bromemethyl)-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine with the 5-methoxyindolyl anion, 6,7-dimethoxytetrahydroisoquinoline, the appropriately substituted pyrroloaniline or 2-methoxy-5-phenylaniline. The pyrroloanilines were synthesized in two steps by treating the substituted nitroanilines with 2,5-dimethoxy-tetrahydrofuran to afford the nitropyrrole intermediates, followed by reduction of the nitro group with Raney Ni. The analogues were more potent than trimethoprim and epiroprim and more selective than TMQ and piritrexim against pcDHFR and tgDHFR. Compounds 5 and 10 had IC50 values of 1 and 0.64 μM, respectively, for the inhibition of the growth of T. gondii cells in culture, and showed excellent culture IC50/enzyme IC50 ratios, which were correlated with their calculated log P values, indicating a direct relationship between calculated lipephilicity and cell penetration.

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