Synthesis of new 2,4-Diaminopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine and 2,4-Diaminopyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium avium dihydrofolate reductase

Andre Rosowsky, Han Chen, Hongning Fu, Sherry Queener

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

89 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A concise new route allowing easy access to five previously unreported 2,4-diamino-6-(substituted benzyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines (2a-e) was developed, involving condensation of 2,4-dipivaloylamino-5-bromopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (6) with an organozinc halide in the presence of a catalytic amount of [1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II)·CH 2Cl2, followed by removal of the pivaloyl groups with base. Also prepared via a scheme based on the Taylor ring expansion/ring annulation synthesis were three heretofore undescribed 2,4-diamino-5-(substituted benzyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines (3b-c). Standard spectrophotometric assays were used to compare the ability of 2a-e and 3b-c to inhibit dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium avium, three examples of opportunistic pathogens to which AIDS patients are highly vulnerable because of their immunocompromised state. For comparison, 13 previously untested 2,4-diamino-6-(substituted benzyl)quinazolines (17a-m) were also evaluated as inhibitors of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme from rat liver. None of the quinazolines or pyridopyrimidines tested was more potent against the P. carinii enzyme than the structurally related reference compound piritrexim (1), and none showed selectivity for the P. carinii enzyme over the rat enzyme. One of the pyridopyrimidines (2c) showed 10-fold selectivity for T. gondii versus rat DHFR, and two of them (2b, 2c) showed selectivity for the M. avium enzyme. However, this gain in species selectivity was achieved at the cost of decreased in potency, as has been noted with many other lipophilic DHFR inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-67
Number of pages9
JournalBioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2 2003

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Pneumocystis carinii
Mycobacterium avium
Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase
Toxoplasma
Quinazolines
Enzymes
Rats
Folic Acid Antagonists
Enzyme Inhibitors
Pathogens
Liver
Condensation
Assays
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
pyrimidine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science

Cite this

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title = "Synthesis of new 2,4-Diaminopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine and 2,4-Diaminopyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium avium dihydrofolate reductase",
abstract = "A concise new route allowing easy access to five previously unreported 2,4-diamino-6-(substituted benzyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines (2a-e) was developed, involving condensation of 2,4-dipivaloylamino-5-bromopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (6) with an organozinc halide in the presence of a catalytic amount of [1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II)·CH 2Cl2, followed by removal of the pivaloyl groups with base. Also prepared via a scheme based on the Taylor ring expansion/ring annulation synthesis were three heretofore undescribed 2,4-diamino-5-(substituted benzyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines (3b-c). Standard spectrophotometric assays were used to compare the ability of 2a-e and 3b-c to inhibit dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium avium, three examples of opportunistic pathogens to which AIDS patients are highly vulnerable because of their immunocompromised state. For comparison, 13 previously untested 2,4-diamino-6-(substituted benzyl)quinazolines (17a-m) were also evaluated as inhibitors of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme from rat liver. None of the quinazolines or pyridopyrimidines tested was more potent against the P. carinii enzyme than the structurally related reference compound piritrexim (1), and none showed selectivity for the P. carinii enzyme over the rat enzyme. One of the pyridopyrimidines (2c) showed 10-fold selectivity for T. gondii versus rat DHFR, and two of them (2b, 2c) showed selectivity for the M. avium enzyme. However, this gain in species selectivity was achieved at the cost of decreased in potency, as has been noted with many other lipophilic DHFR inhibitors.",
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T1 - Synthesis of new 2,4-Diaminopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine and 2,4-Diaminopyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium avium dihydrofolate reductase

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N2 - A concise new route allowing easy access to five previously unreported 2,4-diamino-6-(substituted benzyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines (2a-e) was developed, involving condensation of 2,4-dipivaloylamino-5-bromopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (6) with an organozinc halide in the presence of a catalytic amount of [1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II)·CH 2Cl2, followed by removal of the pivaloyl groups with base. Also prepared via a scheme based on the Taylor ring expansion/ring annulation synthesis were three heretofore undescribed 2,4-diamino-5-(substituted benzyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines (3b-c). Standard spectrophotometric assays were used to compare the ability of 2a-e and 3b-c to inhibit dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium avium, three examples of opportunistic pathogens to which AIDS patients are highly vulnerable because of their immunocompromised state. For comparison, 13 previously untested 2,4-diamino-6-(substituted benzyl)quinazolines (17a-m) were also evaluated as inhibitors of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme from rat liver. None of the quinazolines or pyridopyrimidines tested was more potent against the P. carinii enzyme than the structurally related reference compound piritrexim (1), and none showed selectivity for the P. carinii enzyme over the rat enzyme. One of the pyridopyrimidines (2c) showed 10-fold selectivity for T. gondii versus rat DHFR, and two of them (2b, 2c) showed selectivity for the M. avium enzyme. However, this gain in species selectivity was achieved at the cost of decreased in potency, as has been noted with many other lipophilic DHFR inhibitors.

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