Temporal response of gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film in proton beam irradiation

Li Zhao, Len Coutinho, Ning Cao, Chee Wai Cheng, Indra J. Das

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Gafchromic EBT2 is being used for radiation dosimetry including photon, electrons and recently in proton beams, based on its color changes from transparent to blue due to polymerization. It is critical to understand the temporal response of the polymerization after irradiation to proton beam. Materials and Methods: Five small pieces cut from one sheet (lot no. A08060905A) were irradiated with different doses (2 - 10 Gy) using a clinical proton beam in reference condition (range 16 cm, spread-out-bragg-peak 10 cm). An EPSON flatbed 10000XL was used for digitizing 48 bit color RGB images. The films were kept in the same position on the scanner for each scan. Within a 6-day period, measurements were taken every 3 minutes for the first hour, every 5 to 30 minutes for the first 1-12 hours and then randomly after 12 hours. Red, green and blue frequency read out of the scanner for each film was analyzed in ImageJ software. Results: A mathematical function (netOD =α + β (1-exp (- t/Ta)) + γ (1-exp (-t/Tb)) can be used to describe the temporal response. The polymerization is time dependent with two time constants, Ta (25 minutes) and Tb (1000 minutes). α, β, and γ are dose dependent parameters. The percentage of OD change per 10 minutes remains less than 1% after the first hour. A 7%-11% increase in netOD was observed within the first 12 h when irradiated within 10 Gy, comparable to 9% reported for EBT films. Conclusions and Discussion: The post-irradiation rapid polymerization effect is observed on EBT2 film with the growth of OD. This characteristic can be described by a double exponential function. It is recommended to apply this function for temporal coloration effect to improve the accuracy for radiation dosimetry using EBT2 film in proton beam.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIFMBE Proceedings
Pages1164-1167
Number of pages4
Volume39 IFMBE
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013
EventWorld Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering - Beijing, China
Duration: May 26 2012May 31 2012

Other

OtherWorld Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering
CountryChina
CityBeijing
Period5/26/125/31/12

Fingerprint

Proton beams
Irradiation
Polymerization
Dosimetry
Color
Exponential functions
Photons
Electrons

Keywords

  • EBT2 film
  • film dosimetry
  • gafchromic film
  • proton therapy
  • temporal response

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Bioengineering

Cite this

Zhao, L., Coutinho, L., Cao, N., Cheng, C. W., & Das, I. J. (2013). Temporal response of gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film in proton beam irradiation. In IFMBE Proceedings (Vol. 39 IFMBE, pp. 1164-1167) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-29305-4_305

Temporal response of gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film in proton beam irradiation. / Zhao, Li; Coutinho, Len; Cao, Ning; Cheng, Chee Wai; Das, Indra J.

IFMBE Proceedings. Vol. 39 IFMBE 2013. p. 1164-1167.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Zhao, L, Coutinho, L, Cao, N, Cheng, CW & Das, IJ 2013, Temporal response of gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film in proton beam irradiation. in IFMBE Proceedings. vol. 39 IFMBE, pp. 1164-1167, World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Beijing, China, 5/26/12. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-29305-4_305
Zhao L, Coutinho L, Cao N, Cheng CW, Das IJ. Temporal response of gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film in proton beam irradiation. In IFMBE Proceedings. Vol. 39 IFMBE. 2013. p. 1164-1167 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-29305-4_305
Zhao, Li ; Coutinho, Len ; Cao, Ning ; Cheng, Chee Wai ; Das, Indra J. / Temporal response of gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film in proton beam irradiation. IFMBE Proceedings. Vol. 39 IFMBE 2013. pp. 1164-1167
@inproceedings{e9f852a1b2eb42c6b1c00a7dbfc9cb17,
title = "Temporal response of gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film in proton beam irradiation",
abstract = "Introduction: Gafchromic EBT2 is being used for radiation dosimetry including photon, electrons and recently in proton beams, based on its color changes from transparent to blue due to polymerization. It is critical to understand the temporal response of the polymerization after irradiation to proton beam. Materials and Methods: Five small pieces cut from one sheet (lot no. A08060905A) were irradiated with different doses (2 - 10 Gy) using a clinical proton beam in reference condition (range 16 cm, spread-out-bragg-peak 10 cm). An EPSON flatbed 10000XL was used for digitizing 48 bit color RGB images. The films were kept in the same position on the scanner for each scan. Within a 6-day period, measurements were taken every 3 minutes for the first hour, every 5 to 30 minutes for the first 1-12 hours and then randomly after 12 hours. Red, green and blue frequency read out of the scanner for each film was analyzed in ImageJ software. Results: A mathematical function (netOD =α + β (1-exp (- t/Ta)) + γ (1-exp (-t/Tb)) can be used to describe the temporal response. The polymerization is time dependent with two time constants, Ta (25 minutes) and Tb (1000 minutes). α, β, and γ are dose dependent parameters. The percentage of OD change per 10 minutes remains less than 1{\%} after the first hour. A 7{\%}-11{\%} increase in netOD was observed within the first 12 h when irradiated within 10 Gy, comparable to 9{\%} reported for EBT films. Conclusions and Discussion: The post-irradiation rapid polymerization effect is observed on EBT2 film with the growth of OD. This characteristic can be described by a double exponential function. It is recommended to apply this function for temporal coloration effect to improve the accuracy for radiation dosimetry using EBT2 film in proton beam.",
keywords = "EBT2 film, film dosimetry, gafchromic film, proton therapy, temporal response",
author = "Li Zhao and Len Coutinho and Ning Cao and Cheng, {Chee Wai} and Das, {Indra J.}",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1007/978-3-642-29305-4_305",
language = "English",
isbn = "9783642293047",
volume = "39 IFMBE",
pages = "1164--1167",
booktitle = "IFMBE Proceedings",

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Temporal response of gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film in proton beam irradiation

AU - Zhao, Li

AU - Coutinho, Len

AU - Cao, Ning

AU - Cheng, Chee Wai

AU - Das, Indra J.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Introduction: Gafchromic EBT2 is being used for radiation dosimetry including photon, electrons and recently in proton beams, based on its color changes from transparent to blue due to polymerization. It is critical to understand the temporal response of the polymerization after irradiation to proton beam. Materials and Methods: Five small pieces cut from one sheet (lot no. A08060905A) were irradiated with different doses (2 - 10 Gy) using a clinical proton beam in reference condition (range 16 cm, spread-out-bragg-peak 10 cm). An EPSON flatbed 10000XL was used for digitizing 48 bit color RGB images. The films were kept in the same position on the scanner for each scan. Within a 6-day period, measurements were taken every 3 minutes for the first hour, every 5 to 30 minutes for the first 1-12 hours and then randomly after 12 hours. Red, green and blue frequency read out of the scanner for each film was analyzed in ImageJ software. Results: A mathematical function (netOD =α + β (1-exp (- t/Ta)) + γ (1-exp (-t/Tb)) can be used to describe the temporal response. The polymerization is time dependent with two time constants, Ta (25 minutes) and Tb (1000 minutes). α, β, and γ are dose dependent parameters. The percentage of OD change per 10 minutes remains less than 1% after the first hour. A 7%-11% increase in netOD was observed within the first 12 h when irradiated within 10 Gy, comparable to 9% reported for EBT films. Conclusions and Discussion: The post-irradiation rapid polymerization effect is observed on EBT2 film with the growth of OD. This characteristic can be described by a double exponential function. It is recommended to apply this function for temporal coloration effect to improve the accuracy for radiation dosimetry using EBT2 film in proton beam.

AB - Introduction: Gafchromic EBT2 is being used for radiation dosimetry including photon, electrons and recently in proton beams, based on its color changes from transparent to blue due to polymerization. It is critical to understand the temporal response of the polymerization after irradiation to proton beam. Materials and Methods: Five small pieces cut from one sheet (lot no. A08060905A) were irradiated with different doses (2 - 10 Gy) using a clinical proton beam in reference condition (range 16 cm, spread-out-bragg-peak 10 cm). An EPSON flatbed 10000XL was used for digitizing 48 bit color RGB images. The films were kept in the same position on the scanner for each scan. Within a 6-day period, measurements were taken every 3 minutes for the first hour, every 5 to 30 minutes for the first 1-12 hours and then randomly after 12 hours. Red, green and blue frequency read out of the scanner for each film was analyzed in ImageJ software. Results: A mathematical function (netOD =α + β (1-exp (- t/Ta)) + γ (1-exp (-t/Tb)) can be used to describe the temporal response. The polymerization is time dependent with two time constants, Ta (25 minutes) and Tb (1000 minutes). α, β, and γ are dose dependent parameters. The percentage of OD change per 10 minutes remains less than 1% after the first hour. A 7%-11% increase in netOD was observed within the first 12 h when irradiated within 10 Gy, comparable to 9% reported for EBT films. Conclusions and Discussion: The post-irradiation rapid polymerization effect is observed on EBT2 film with the growth of OD. This characteristic can be described by a double exponential function. It is recommended to apply this function for temporal coloration effect to improve the accuracy for radiation dosimetry using EBT2 film in proton beam.

KW - EBT2 film

KW - film dosimetry

KW - gafchromic film

KW - proton therapy

KW - temporal response

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84876058337&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84876058337&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/978-3-642-29305-4_305

DO - 10.1007/978-3-642-29305-4_305

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 9783642293047

VL - 39 IFMBE

SP - 1164

EP - 1167

BT - IFMBE Proceedings

ER -