Testis and paratesticular tissues

Myra L. Wilkerson, Liang Cheng

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The diagnosis of testicular neoplasms is often based solely on morphologic pattern recognition, but there are newer markers that can play a significant role in the identification of germ cell tumors such as SALL4, Nanog, LIN28 and OCT4. Similarly, GAL-3 and other newer markers can be helpful in the identification of sex cord/stromal tumors. Many of the markers used in the identification of testicular tumors may be present in normal testicular cells as well, but their expression patterns may change according to the life stage of the patient. This chapter attempts to address that question, although the literature is somewhat sparse. Markers of normal paratesticular epithelia are included, as well as markers in paratesticular tumors and adenocarcinomas in the male pelvis. Basic algorithms are provided to assist in the workup of testicular and paratesticular neoplasms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Practical Immunohistochemistry: Frequently Asked Questions
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9781493915781, 9781493915774
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Adenomatoid tumor
  • Choriocarcinoma
  • Embryonal carcinoma
  • Gonadoblastoma
  • Granulosa cell tumor
  • Intratubular germ cell neoplasia
  • Large cell, calcifying sertoli cell tumor
  • Leydig cell tumor
  • LIN28
  • Nanog
  • Seminoma
  • Sertoli cell tumor
  • Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1)
  • Yolk sac tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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  • Cite this

    Wilkerson, M. L., & Cheng, L. (2015). Testis and paratesticular tissues. In Handbook of Practical Immunohistochemistry: Frequently Asked Questions (pp. 465-480). Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-1578-1_24