Testis risk and prognostic factors: The pathologist's perspective

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Scopus citations


Pathologic analysis is invaluable in defining the levels of risk for the development of a testicular tumor or for metastasis in a patient with an established testicular cancer. The identification of IGCNU in testicular biopsies defines a group of patients at high risk for subsequent invasive germ cell tumor unless they are treated by orchiectomy or radiotherapy. This method for defining the risk for the development of a testicular tumor is not effective in prepubertal patients, except for those with intersex syndromes. Pathologic analysis of testicular germ cell tumors in patients with clinical stage I disease may allow their stratification into high- and low-risk groups for occult metastases. This would provide a rational basis for recommending intervention or surveillance, respectively. The precise classification of postchemotherapy lesions permits an assessment of the patient's risk for subsequent recurrence and progressive tumor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)611-626
Number of pages16
JournalUrologic Clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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