The amygdala, panic disorder, and cardiovascular responses

Anantha Shekhar, Tammy J. Sajdyk, Donald R. Gehlert, Donald G. Rainnie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

93 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The amygdala is implicated in a number of emotional responses including conditioned fear and anxiety, and it appears to regulate the behavioral and autonomic responses associated with such emotional responses. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is under tonic GABAergic inhibition, and acutely blocking this inhibition results in increased anxiety-like behavior, conditioned avoidance, and sympathetically mediated cardiovascular activation. By contrast, activation of the BLA with the stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor results in anxiety-like behavior, but not cardiovascular activation. Furthermore, repeated activation of this region with subthreshold GABA blockade or corticotropin-releasing factor-mediated excitation (priming) results in a chronic anxiety-like state, with susceptibility to panic-like arousal following intravenous lactate infusions. The chronic anxiety state appears to result from a loss of basal inhibitory drive in the BLA as a result of NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity involving cyclic AMP and calcium calmodulin kinase II (CAM KII)-mediated changes. The lactate-induced panic-like response appears to involve angiotensin-II mediated activation of the BLA. These results suggest that the BLA has a significant role in regulating anxiety, autonomic responses, and the development of anxiety disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)308-325
Number of pages18
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume985
StatePublished - 2003

Fingerprint

Panic Disorder
Amygdala
Anxiety
Chemical activation
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
Panic
Lactic Acid
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
Avoidance Learning
N-Methylaspartate
Neuropeptides
Neuronal Plasticity
Angiotensin II
Cyclic AMP
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Plasticity
Arousal
Anxiety Disorders
Intravenous Infusions
Fear

Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)
  • GABA
  • Lactate infusions
  • LTP
  • Priming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

Shekhar, A., Sajdyk, T. J., Gehlert, D. R., & Rainnie, D. G. (2003). The amygdala, panic disorder, and cardiovascular responses. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 985, 308-325.

The amygdala, panic disorder, and cardiovascular responses. / Shekhar, Anantha; Sajdyk, Tammy J.; Gehlert, Donald R.; Rainnie, Donald G.

In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 985, 2003, p. 308-325.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shekhar, A, Sajdyk, TJ, Gehlert, DR & Rainnie, DG 2003, 'The amygdala, panic disorder, and cardiovascular responses', Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 985, pp. 308-325.
Shekhar, Anantha ; Sajdyk, Tammy J. ; Gehlert, Donald R. ; Rainnie, Donald G. / The amygdala, panic disorder, and cardiovascular responses. In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2003 ; Vol. 985. pp. 308-325.
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