The applicability and utility of immunohistochemical biomarkers in bladder pathology

Mahmut Akgul, Gregory T. MacLennan, Liang Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Urinary bladder specimens are frequently encountered in the daily practice of surgical pathologists. The spectrum of pathologic entities encountered in bladder specimens is extraordinarily broad, and in some instances, immunohistochemical stains are used to help characterize challenging bladder lesions. Cost-effective biomarker selection tailored to the differential diagnosis facilitates an accurate diagnosis. This comprehensive review is prepared as a reference guide for the use of immunohistochemistry to categorize primary and secondary bladder neoplasms and to evaluate metastatic cancers for possible bladder origin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)32-55
Number of pages24
JournalHuman pathology
StatePublished - Apr 2020


  • Biomarkers
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Histologic variants
  • Immunohistochemistry/immunoprofiling
  • Molecular genetics
  • Urinary bladder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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