The chemistry of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) analogues containing C-nucleosides related to nicotinamide riboside

Krysztof W. Pankiewicz, Kyoichi A. Watanabe, Krystyna Lesiak-Watanabe, Barry M. Goldstein, Hiremagalur N. Jayaram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Oncolytic C-nucleosides, tiazofurin (2-β-D-ribofuranosylthiazole-4-carboxamide) and benzamide riboside (3-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzamide) are converted in cell into active metabolites thiazole-4-carboxamide- and benzamide adenine dinucleotide, TAD and BAD, respectively. TAD and BAD as NAD analogues were found to bind at the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (cofactor NAD) site of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an important target in cancer treatment. The synthesis and evaluation of anticancer activity of a number of C-nucleosides related to tiazofurin and nicotinamide riboside then followed and are reviewed herein. Interestingly, pyridine C-nucleosides (such as C-nicotinamide riboside) are not metabolized into the corresponding NAD analogues in cell. Their conversion by chemical methods is described. As dinucleotides these compounds show inhibition of IMPDH in low micromolar level. Also, the synthesis of BAD in metabolically stable bis(phosphonate) form is discussed indicating the usefulness of such preformed inhibitors in drug development. Among tiazofurin analogues, Franchetti and Grifantini found, that the replacement of the sulfur by oxygen (as in oxazafurin) but not the removal of nitrogen (tiophenfurin) of the thiazole ring resulted in inactive compounds. The anti cancer activity of their synthetic dinucleotide analogues indicate that inactive compounds are not only poorly metabolized in cell but also are weak inhibitors of IMPDH as dinucleotides.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)733-741
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Medicinal Chemistry
Volume9
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002

Keywords

  • Benzamide riboside
  • C-nucleosides
  • Chemistry of NAD analogues
  • NAD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry

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