The cognitive change index as a measure of self and informant perception of cognitive decline: Relation to neuropsychological tests

Chatchawan Rattanabannakit, Shannon L. Risacher, Sujuan Gao, Kathleen A. Lane, Steven A. Brown, Brenna C. McDonald, Frederick W. Unverzagt, Liana G. Apostolova, Andrew J. Saykin, Martin R. Farlow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Scopus citations


Background: The perception of cognitive decline by individuals and those who know them well ( informants ) has been inconsistently associated with objective cognitive performance, but strongly associated with depressive symptoms.∗Objective:We investigated associations of self-report, informant-report, and discrepancy between self- and informant-report of cognitive decline obtained from the Cognitive Change Index (CCI) with cognitive test performance and self-reported depressive symptoms.∗Methods: 267 participants with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or mild dementia were included from a cohort study and memory clinic.∗Association of test performance and self-rated depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS) with CCI scores obtained from subjects (CCI-S), their informants (CCI-I), and discrepancy scores between subjects and informants (CCI-D; CCI-S minus CCI-I) were analyzed using correlation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models.∗Results: CCI-S and CCI-I scores showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha 0.96 and 0.98, respectively).∗Higher scores on CCI-S and CCI-I, and lower scores on the CCI-D, were associated with lower performance on various cognitive tests in both univariate and in ANCOVA models adjusted for age, gender, and education.∗Adjustment for GDS slightly weakened the relationships between CCI and test performance but most remained significant.∗Conclusion: Self- and informant-report of cognitive decline, as measured by the CCI, show moderately strong relationships with objective test performance independent of age, gender, education, and depressive symptoms. The CCI appears to be a valid cross-sectional measure of self and informant perception of cognitive decline across the continuum of functioning.∗Studies are needed to address the relationship of CCI scores to longitudinal outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1145-1155
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 12 2016


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • cognitive change index
  • cognitive performance
  • subjective cognitive decline
  • validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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