The development and in vivo function of T helper 9 cells

Mark H. Kaplan, Matthew M. Hufford, Matthew R. Olson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

193 Scopus citations


The specialized cytokine secretion profiles of T helper (T H) cells are the basis for a focused and efficient immune response. On the twentieth anniversary of the first descriptions of the cytokine signals that promote the differentiation of interleukin-9 (IL-9)-secreting T cells, this Review focuses on the extracellular signals and the transcription factors that promote the development of what we now term T H 9 cells, which are characterized by the production of this cytokine. We summarize our current understanding of the contribution of T H 9 cells to both effective immunity and immunopathological disease, and we propose that T H 9 cells could be targeted for the treatment of allergic and autoimmune disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)295-307
Number of pages13
JournalNature Reviews Immunology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Apr 24 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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