The specialized cytokine secretion profiles of T helper (T H) cells are the basis for a focused and efficient immune response. On the twentieth anniversary of the first descriptions of the cytokine signals that promote the differentiation of interleukin-9 (IL-9)-secreting T cells, this Review focuses on the extracellular signals and the transcription factors that promote the development of what we now term T H 9 cells, which are characterized by the production of this cytokine. We summarize our current understanding of the contribution of T H 9 cells to both effective immunity and immunopathological disease, and we propose that T H 9 cells could be targeted for the treatment of allergic and autoimmune disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy