The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR is dispensable for regulation of translation initiation in response to either calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum or essential amino acid starvation

Scot R. Kimball, Michael J. Clemens, Vivienne J. Tilleray, Ronald Wek, Rick L. Horetsky, Leonard S. Jefferson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 is a preferred substrate for the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, PKR. Phosphorylation of eIF2α converts the factor from a substrate into a competitive inhibitor of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B, leading to a decline in mRNA translation. Early studies provided evidence implicating PKR as the kinase that phosphorylates eIF2α under conditions of cell stress such as the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, i.e., the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, the recent identification of a trans-microsomal membrane eIF2α kinase, termed PEK or PERK, suggests that this kinase, and not PKR, might be the kinase that is activated by misfolded protein accumulation. Similarly, genetic studies in yeast provide compelling evidence that a kinase termed GCN2 phosphorylates eIF2α in response to amino acid deprivation. However, no direct evidence showing activation of the mammalian homologue of GCN2 by amino acid deprivation has been reported. In the present study, we find that in fibroblasts treated with agents that promote the UPR, protein synthesis is inhibited as a result of a decrease in eIF2B activity. Furthermore, the reduction in eIF2B activity is associated with enhanced phosphorylation of eIF2α. Importantly, the magnitude of the change in each parameter is identical in wildtype cells and in fibroblasts containing a chromosomal deletion in the PKR gene (PKR-KO cells). In a similar manner, we find that during amino acid deprivation the inhibition of protein synthesis and extent of increase in eIF2α phosphorylation are identical in wildtype and PKR-KO cells. Overall, the results show that PKR is not required for increased eIF2α phosphorylation or inhibition of protein synthesis under conditions promoting the UPR or in response to amino acid deprivation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)293-300
Number of pages8
JournalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Volume280
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Fingerprint

eIF-2 Kinase
Essential Amino Acids
Double-Stranded RNA
Starvation
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Unfolded Protein Response
Calcium
Phosphotransferases
Phosphorylation
Amino Acids
Proteins
Fibroblasts
Eukaryotic Initiation Factors
Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
Protein Biosynthesis
Yeasts
Substrates
Membranes
Yeast
Genes

Keywords

  • eIF2
  • eIF2B
  • Eukaryotic initiation factor
  • PKR
  • Translation initiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Biophysics
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR is dispensable for regulation of translation initiation in response to either calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum or essential amino acid starvation. / Kimball, Scot R.; Clemens, Michael J.; Tilleray, Vivienne J.; Wek, Ronald; Horetsky, Rick L.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 280, No. 1, 2001, p. 293-300.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 is a preferred substrate for the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, PKR. Phosphorylation of eIF2α converts the factor from a substrate into a competitive inhibitor of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B, leading to a decline in mRNA translation. Early studies provided evidence implicating PKR as the kinase that phosphorylates eIF2α under conditions of cell stress such as the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, i.e., the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, the recent identification of a trans-microsomal membrane eIF2α kinase, termed PEK or PERK, suggests that this kinase, and not PKR, might be the kinase that is activated by misfolded protein accumulation. Similarly, genetic studies in yeast provide compelling evidence that a kinase termed GCN2 phosphorylates eIF2α in response to amino acid deprivation. However, no direct evidence showing activation of the mammalian homologue of GCN2 by amino acid deprivation has been reported. In the present study, we find that in fibroblasts treated with agents that promote the UPR, protein synthesis is inhibited as a result of a decrease in eIF2B activity. Furthermore, the reduction in eIF2B activity is associated with enhanced phosphorylation of eIF2α. Importantly, the magnitude of the change in each parameter is identical in wildtype cells and in fibroblasts containing a chromosomal deletion in the PKR gene (PKR-KO cells). In a similar manner, we find that during amino acid deprivation the inhibition of protein synthesis and extent of increase in eIF2α phosphorylation are identical in wildtype and PKR-KO cells. Overall, the results show that PKR is not required for increased eIF2α phosphorylation or inhibition of protein synthesis under conditions promoting the UPR or in response to amino acid deprivation.",
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