The dual role of pharmacogenetics in HIV treatment: Mutations and polymorphisms regulating antiretroviral drug resistance and disposition

Veronique Michaud, Tamara Bar-Magen, Jacques Turgeon, David Flockhart, Zeruesenay Desta, Mark A. Wainberg

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Abstract

Significant intra- and interindividual variability has been observed in response to use of pharmacological agents in treatment of HIV infection. Treatment of HIV infection is limited by high rates of adverse drug reactions and development of resistance in a significant proportion of patients as a result of suboptimal drug concentrations. The efficacy of antiretroviral therapy is challenged by the emergence of resistant HIV-1 mutants with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs. Moreover, pharmacotherapy of patients infected with HIV is challenging because a great number of comorbidities increase polypharmacy and the risk for drug-drug interactions. Drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters regulate drug access to the systemic circulation, target cells, and sanctuary sites. These factors, which determine drug exposure, along with the emergence of mutations conferring resistance to HIV medications, could explain variability in efficacy and adverse drug reactions associated with antiretroviral drugs. In this review, the major factors affecting the disposition of antiretroviral drugs, including key drug-metabolizing enzymes and membrane drug transporters, are outlined. Genetic polymorphisms affecting the activity and/or the expression of cytochromes P450 or UGT isozymes and membrane drug transport proteins are highlighted and include such examples as the association of neurotoxicity with efavirenz, nephrotoxicity with tenofovir, hepatotoxicity with nevirapine, and hyperbilirubinemia with indinavir and atazanavir. Mechanisms of drug resistance conferred by specific viral mutations are also reviewed, with particular attention to replicative viral fitness and transmitted HIV drug resistance with the objectives of providing a better understanding of mechanisms involved in HIV drug resistance and helping health care providers to better manage interpatient variability in drug efficacy and toxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)803-833
Number of pages31
JournalPharmacological Reviews
Volume64
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2012

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Pharmacogenetics
Drug Resistance
HIV
Mutation
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Therapeutics
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Membrane Transport Proteins
Tenofovir
efavirenz
HIV Infections
Indinavir
Nevirapine
Polypharmacy
Hyperbilirubinemia
Genetic Polymorphisms
Enzymes
Drug Interactions
Health Personnel
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

The dual role of pharmacogenetics in HIV treatment : Mutations and polymorphisms regulating antiretroviral drug resistance and disposition. / Michaud, Veronique; Bar-Magen, Tamara; Turgeon, Jacques; Flockhart, David; Desta, Zeruesenay; Wainberg, Mark A.

In: Pharmacological Reviews, Vol. 64, No. 3, 07.2012, p. 803-833.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Michaud, Veronique ; Bar-Magen, Tamara ; Turgeon, Jacques ; Flockhart, David ; Desta, Zeruesenay ; Wainberg, Mark A. / The dual role of pharmacogenetics in HIV treatment : Mutations and polymorphisms regulating antiretroviral drug resistance and disposition. In: Pharmacological Reviews. 2012 ; Vol. 64, No. 3. pp. 803-833.
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