The effect of diluted penetration enhancer in nebulized mist versus liquid drop preparation forms on retrobulbar blood flow in healthy human subjects

Sally Primus, Ingrida Januleviciene, Brent Siesky, Austin Gerber, Patrick Egan, Annahita Amireskandari, Lina Siaudvytyte, Ruta Barsauskaite, Alon Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to compare the effects of nebulized mist and liquid drop applications on retrobulbar blood flow. A prospective, non-randomized clinical trial was used to collect data from 40 healthy human eyes. Color Doppler Imaging determined peak systolic (PSV) and end diastolic (EDV) blood flow velocities and resistance index (RI) in the ophthalmic artery after both applications. Measurements were taken at baseline and at 1 min post-treatment in both eyes with 5 min measurements in the treatment eye only. p values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mist application to treatment eye produced an increase in 1 min and 5 min PSV and EDV (0.001 < p < 0.03) and a decrease in 5 min RI (p = 0.01), with no significant changes in PSV, EDV or RI of control eye or in treatment eye 1 min RI (p > 0.05). Drop application to treatment eye produced an increase in PSV (p < 0.001) and EDV (p = 0.01) at 1 min, with an increase in control eye 1 min PSV and EDV (p = 0.03). There were no statistically significant changes in treatment eye PSV, EDV and RI after 5 min (p > 0.05). The use of nebulized mist may provide an effective alternative to liquid drop medication application.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-384
Number of pages8
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2012



  • Color Doppler imaging
  • Nebulized mist
  • Retrobulbar blood flow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science

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