Purpose: Successful osseointegration of titanium dental implants is decreased in areas of poor bone volume and density. Low amperage direct current (LADC) has been shown to perturb bone cells, which in turn promotes bone growth. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of LADC on the osseointegration of endosseous titanium dental implants. Materials and Methods: Two implant sites were prepared in the body of the mandible of five rabbits by an extraoral approach. An LADC-stimulated 3.75 × 7 mm-titanium implant was placed in one site and an identical control implant was inserted on the contralateral side. A sterilized silicone-encased power pack producing 7.5 ± 0.2 uA and 1.35 ± 0.01 V was placed in a submandibular pouch. The active cathode lead was attached to the LADC implant and the anode was placed in the mandible 5 mm distal to the implant. Nonactive leads were similarly connected to the control implant. Twenty-eight days after placement, the implants were removed using a torque wrench, and the bone surrounding the implants was examined both microscopically and radiographically. Results: The average force to initial rotation was 1,320 ± 880 g/cm for the LADC-stimulated implants and 1,290 ± 238 g/cm for the control implants. This was not significantly different by t test (P = .94). Light microscopic evaluation demonstrated a mixture of compact and woven bone and fibrous tissue adjacent to both groups of implants. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated an average percent of bone in relation to the total tissue adjacent to the control implants of 33.5 ± 15.4 and 40.2 ± 4.8 for the LADC-stimulated implants (not significantly different, t test, P = .39). Conclusion: It was concluded that LADC as used in this study does not positively affect the healing of bone. Its ability to enhance bone growth around titanium dental implants needs further investigation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Oral Surgery