In this short review, some regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the control of normal bone formation are proposed, based on several in vivo and in vitro models our group has utilized recently to study osteoblast differentiation and mineralized bone matrix formation. Of course, these proposals must be assessed in the light of the limitations of the models, which probably represent a simplification of the complex and different ways in which normal mammalian bone is formed at different sites. Nevertheless, it is likely that the same general types of control mechanisms are active in each of the different types of bone formation. In adult humans, bone formation predominantly occurs by remodeling, the process by which bone which has recently been resorbed by osteoclasts is replaced by teams of osteoblasts. Other types of bone formation such as endochondral bone formation and appositional bone formation are also important, particularly during growth and adolescence. The end results of each of these processes are the same, namely a complex mineralized proteinaceous bone matrix. These processes are modulated by systemic hormonal influences, which are particularly important with respect to pituitary hormones and sex steroids during growth and adolescence, and by local cellular microenvironmental differences. The former will not be discussed here. Rather, we will concentrate on the local events and factors which are likely involved in the bone formation process occurring during normal bone remodeling.
- Bone formation
- Growth factors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism