Objective The aim was to investigate the effects of fluoride, strontium, theobromine and their combinations on caries lesion rehardening and fluoridation (EFU) under pH cycling conditions. Design Human enamel specimens were demineralized at 37 °C for 24 h using a pH 5.0 solution containing 50 mM lactic acid and 0.2% Carbopol 907 which was 50% saturated with respect to hydroxyapatite. Lesions were assigned to nine treatment groups (n = 16) based on Knoop surface microhardness indentation length. Treatment aqueous solutions were: placebo, 11.9 mM sodium fluoride (F), 23.8 mM sodium fluoride (2 × F), 1.1 mM strontium chloride hexahydrate (Sr), 1.1 mM F theobromine, Sr + theobromine, F + Sr, F + theobromine, F + Sr + theobromine. Lesions were pH cycled for 5d (daily protocol: 3 × 1min-treatment; 2 × 60min-demineralization; 4 × 60 min & overnight-artificial saliva). Knoop indentation length was measured again and%surface microhardness recovery (%SMHr) calculated. EFU was determined using the acid-etch technique. Data were analysed using ANOVA. Results Model showed fluoride dose-response for both variables (2 × F > F > placebo). For%SMHr, F + Sr+/−theobromine resulted in more rehardening than F, however less than 2 × F. F + theobromine was similar to F. For EFU, F + Sr was inferior to F, F + theobromine and F + Sr + theobromine which were similar and inferior to 2 × F. In absence of fluoride, Sr, theobromine or Sr + theobromine were virtually indistinguishable from placebo and inferior to F. Conclusions It can be concluded that a) strontium aids rehardening but not EFU and only in presence of fluoride; b) theobromine does not appear to offer any anti-caries benefits in this model; c) there are no synergistic effects between strontium and theobromine in the presence or absence of fluoride.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology