The effects of fluoride, strontium, theobromine and their combinations on caries lesion rehardening and fluoridation

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective The aim was to investigate the effects of fluoride, strontium, theobromine and their combinations on caries lesion rehardening and fluoridation (EFU) under pH cycling conditions. Design Human enamel specimens were demineralized at 37 °C for 24 h using a pH 5.0 solution containing 50 mM lactic acid and 0.2% Carbopol 907 which was 50% saturated with respect to hydroxyapatite. Lesions were assigned to nine treatment groups (n = 16) based on Knoop surface microhardness indentation length. Treatment aqueous solutions were: placebo, 11.9 mM sodium fluoride (F), 23.8 mM sodium fluoride (2 × F), 1.1 mM strontium chloride hexahydrate (Sr), 1.1 mM F theobromine, Sr + theobromine, F + Sr, F + theobromine, F + Sr + theobromine. Lesions were pH cycled for 5d (daily protocol: 3 × 1min-treatment; 2 × 60min-demineralization; 4 × 60 min & overnight-artificial saliva). Knoop indentation length was measured again and%surface microhardness recovery (%SMHr) calculated. EFU was determined using the acid-etch technique. Data were analysed using ANOVA. Results Model showed fluoride dose-response for both variables (2 × F > F > placebo). For%SMHr, F + Sr+/−theobromine resulted in more rehardening than F, however less than 2 × F. F + theobromine was similar to F. For EFU, F + Sr was inferior to F, F + theobromine and F + Sr + theobromine which were similar and inferior to 2 × F. In absence of fluoride, Sr, theobromine or Sr + theobromine were virtually indistinguishable from placebo and inferior to F. Conclusions It can be concluded that a) strontium aids rehardening but not EFU and only in presence of fluoride; b) theobromine does not appear to offer any anti-caries benefits in this model; c) there are no synergistic effects between strontium and theobromine in the presence or absence of fluoride.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)217-221
Number of pages5
JournalArchives of Oral Biology
Volume80
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017

Fingerprint

Theobromine
Fluoridation
Strontium
Fluorides
Sodium Fluoride
Placebos
Artificial Saliva
Durapatite
Dental Enamel
Clinical Protocols

Keywords

  • Caries
  • Enamel
  • Fluoride
  • Strontium
  • Theobromine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

@article{ac69846c71fc4bd98adb762bc324e0c8,
title = "The effects of fluoride, strontium, theobromine and their combinations on caries lesion rehardening and fluoridation",
abstract = "Objective The aim was to investigate the effects of fluoride, strontium, theobromine and their combinations on caries lesion rehardening and fluoridation (EFU) under pH cycling conditions. Design Human enamel specimens were demineralized at 37 °C for 24 h using a pH 5.0 solution containing 50 mM lactic acid and 0.2{\%} Carbopol 907 which was 50{\%} saturated with respect to hydroxyapatite. Lesions were assigned to nine treatment groups (n = 16) based on Knoop surface microhardness indentation length. Treatment aqueous solutions were: placebo, 11.9 mM sodium fluoride (F), 23.8 mM sodium fluoride (2 × F), 1.1 mM strontium chloride hexahydrate (Sr), 1.1 mM F theobromine, Sr + theobromine, F + Sr, F + theobromine, F + Sr + theobromine. Lesions were pH cycled for 5d (daily protocol: 3 × 1min-treatment; 2 × 60min-demineralization; 4 × 60 min & overnight-artificial saliva). Knoop indentation length was measured again and{\%}surface microhardness recovery ({\%}SMHr) calculated. EFU was determined using the acid-etch technique. Data were analysed using ANOVA. Results Model showed fluoride dose-response for both variables (2 × F > F > placebo). For{\%}SMHr, F + Sr+/−theobromine resulted in more rehardening than F, however less than 2 × F. F + theobromine was similar to F. For EFU, F + Sr was inferior to F, F + theobromine and F + Sr + theobromine which were similar and inferior to 2 × F. In absence of fluoride, Sr, theobromine or Sr + theobromine were virtually indistinguishable from placebo and inferior to F. Conclusions It can be concluded that a) strontium aids rehardening but not EFU and only in presence of fluoride; b) theobromine does not appear to offer any anti-caries benefits in this model; c) there are no synergistic effects between strontium and theobromine in the presence or absence of fluoride.",
keywords = "Caries, Enamel, Fluoride, Strontium, Theobromine",
author = "Frank Lippert",
year = "2017",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.022",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "80",
pages = "217--221",
journal = "Archives of Oral Biology",
issn = "0003-9969",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effects of fluoride, strontium, theobromine and their combinations on caries lesion rehardening and fluoridation

AU - Lippert, Frank

PY - 2017/8/1

Y1 - 2017/8/1

N2 - Objective The aim was to investigate the effects of fluoride, strontium, theobromine and their combinations on caries lesion rehardening and fluoridation (EFU) under pH cycling conditions. Design Human enamel specimens were demineralized at 37 °C for 24 h using a pH 5.0 solution containing 50 mM lactic acid and 0.2% Carbopol 907 which was 50% saturated with respect to hydroxyapatite. Lesions were assigned to nine treatment groups (n = 16) based on Knoop surface microhardness indentation length. Treatment aqueous solutions were: placebo, 11.9 mM sodium fluoride (F), 23.8 mM sodium fluoride (2 × F), 1.1 mM strontium chloride hexahydrate (Sr), 1.1 mM F theobromine, Sr + theobromine, F + Sr, F + theobromine, F + Sr + theobromine. Lesions were pH cycled for 5d (daily protocol: 3 × 1min-treatment; 2 × 60min-demineralization; 4 × 60 min & overnight-artificial saliva). Knoop indentation length was measured again and%surface microhardness recovery (%SMHr) calculated. EFU was determined using the acid-etch technique. Data were analysed using ANOVA. Results Model showed fluoride dose-response for both variables (2 × F > F > placebo). For%SMHr, F + Sr+/−theobromine resulted in more rehardening than F, however less than 2 × F. F + theobromine was similar to F. For EFU, F + Sr was inferior to F, F + theobromine and F + Sr + theobromine which were similar and inferior to 2 × F. In absence of fluoride, Sr, theobromine or Sr + theobromine were virtually indistinguishable from placebo and inferior to F. Conclusions It can be concluded that a) strontium aids rehardening but not EFU and only in presence of fluoride; b) theobromine does not appear to offer any anti-caries benefits in this model; c) there are no synergistic effects between strontium and theobromine in the presence or absence of fluoride.

AB - Objective The aim was to investigate the effects of fluoride, strontium, theobromine and their combinations on caries lesion rehardening and fluoridation (EFU) under pH cycling conditions. Design Human enamel specimens were demineralized at 37 °C for 24 h using a pH 5.0 solution containing 50 mM lactic acid and 0.2% Carbopol 907 which was 50% saturated with respect to hydroxyapatite. Lesions were assigned to nine treatment groups (n = 16) based on Knoop surface microhardness indentation length. Treatment aqueous solutions were: placebo, 11.9 mM sodium fluoride (F), 23.8 mM sodium fluoride (2 × F), 1.1 mM strontium chloride hexahydrate (Sr), 1.1 mM F theobromine, Sr + theobromine, F + Sr, F + theobromine, F + Sr + theobromine. Lesions were pH cycled for 5d (daily protocol: 3 × 1min-treatment; 2 × 60min-demineralization; 4 × 60 min & overnight-artificial saliva). Knoop indentation length was measured again and%surface microhardness recovery (%SMHr) calculated. EFU was determined using the acid-etch technique. Data were analysed using ANOVA. Results Model showed fluoride dose-response for both variables (2 × F > F > placebo). For%SMHr, F + Sr+/−theobromine resulted in more rehardening than F, however less than 2 × F. F + theobromine was similar to F. For EFU, F + Sr was inferior to F, F + theobromine and F + Sr + theobromine which were similar and inferior to 2 × F. In absence of fluoride, Sr, theobromine or Sr + theobromine were virtually indistinguishable from placebo and inferior to F. Conclusions It can be concluded that a) strontium aids rehardening but not EFU and only in presence of fluoride; b) theobromine does not appear to offer any anti-caries benefits in this model; c) there are no synergistic effects between strontium and theobromine in the presence or absence of fluoride.

KW - Caries

KW - Enamel

KW - Fluoride

KW - Strontium

KW - Theobromine

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U2 - 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.022

DO - 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.022

M3 - Article

C2 - 28458181

AN - SCOPUS:85018271626

VL - 80

SP - 217

EP - 221

JO - Archives of Oral Biology

JF - Archives of Oral Biology

SN - 0003-9969

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