Electrophysiologic and hemodynamic effects of intravenous enoximone were studied in 15 male patients, mean age 62.2 years, with New York Heart Association classes II to IV congestive heart fallure (coronary artery disease in 10 and idlopathic dllated cardiomyopathy in five patients; mean ejection fraction, 0.19). All patients had spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias: eight had sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), one had ventricular fibrillation, and six had nonsustained VT. Hemodynamic and electrophysiologic parameters including VT induction were determined before and during an intravenous infusion of enoximone. The cardiac index increased (2.49 ± 0.89 to 2.96 ± 0.78), and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure decreased (22.4 ± 13.2 to 10.0 ± 9.0) after enoximone per predefined protocol endpoints. There was a significant decrease in spontaneous sinus cycle length, corrected sinus nodal recovery time, AH interval during atrial pacing, shortest cycle length at which 1:1 atrioventricular nodal conduction occurred, and refractory periods of the atrium, ventricle, and atrioventricular node. Enoximone did not alter the cycle length of induced VT, and there was no consistent change in the number of extrastimuli required for VT induction. A baseline 24-hour ECG recording was obtained on 14 patients (while recelving a long-term antiarrhythmic drug regimen, if needed) and repeated after 1 week and 1 month of oral enoximone therapy. There was no significant increase in the number of premature ventricular complexes per hour or VT episodes per 24 hours after 1 week or 1 month of therapy with enoximone. However, if four patients who received amiodarone and may not yet have reached steady state were excluded from analysis, there was a significant increase in the frequency of premature ventricular complexes per hour 1 month after initiation of enoximone. We conclude that intravenous enoximone reduces pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and increases cardiac output in most patients. Intravenous enoximone in doses sufficlent to have hemodynamic effects shortens atrial, ventricular, and atrioventricular nodal refractoriness and decreases AV nodal conduction time but has no consistent effect on VT induction or VT cycle length. The frequency of spontaneous ventricular ectopy may increase in some patients after oral enoximone, but its clinical significance is undefined. Enoximone may be administered cautiously to patients with congestive heart fallure and preexisting ventricular tachyarrhythmias.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine