The emerging role of epigenetic modifiers in repair of DNA damage associated with chronic inflammatory diseases

Ning Ding, Ashley R. Maiuri, Heather O'Hagan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

At sites of chronic inflammation epithelial cells are exposed to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can contribute to the initiation and development of many different human cancers. Aberrant epigenetic alterations that cause transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes are also implicated in many diseases associated with inflammation, including cancer. However, it is not clear how altered epigenetic gene silencing is initiated during chronic inflammation. The high level of ROS at sites of inflammation is known to induce oxidative DNA damage in surrounding epithelial cells. Furthermore, DNA damage is known to trigger several responses, including recruitment of DNA repair proteins, transcriptional repression, chromatin modifications and other cell signaling events. Recruitment of epigenetic modifiers to chromatin in response to DNA damage results in transient covalent modifications to chromatin such as histone ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation and DNA methylation. DNA damage also alters non-coding RNA expression. All of these alterations have the potential to alter gene expression at sites of damage. Typically, these modifications and gene transcription are restored back to normal once the repair of the DNA damage is completed. However, chronic inflammation may induce sustained DNA damage and DNA damage responses that result in these transient covalent chromatin modifications becoming mitotically stable epigenetic alterations. Understanding how epigenetic alterations are initiated during chronic inflammation will allow us to develop pharmaceutical strategies to prevent or treat chronic inflammation-induced cancer. This review will focus on types of DNA damage and epigenetic alterations associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, the types of DNA damage and transient covalent chromatin modifications induced by inflammation and oxidative DNA damage and how these modifications may result in epigenetic alterations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMutation Research - Reviews in Mutation Research
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2017

Fingerprint

Epigenomics
DNA Damage
Chronic Disease
Inflammation
Chromatin
Reactive Oxygen Species
Epithelial Cells
Neoplasms
Untranslated RNA
Ubiquitination
Gene Silencing
DNA Methylation
Acetylation
Tumor Suppressor Genes
DNA Repair
Histones
Methylation
Gene Expression

Keywords

  • Chronic inflammation
  • DNA repair
  • Epigenetic alterations
  • Oxidative DNA damage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

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title = "The emerging role of epigenetic modifiers in repair of DNA damage associated with chronic inflammatory diseases",
abstract = "At sites of chronic inflammation epithelial cells are exposed to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can contribute to the initiation and development of many different human cancers. Aberrant epigenetic alterations that cause transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes are also implicated in many diseases associated with inflammation, including cancer. However, it is not clear how altered epigenetic gene silencing is initiated during chronic inflammation. The high level of ROS at sites of inflammation is known to induce oxidative DNA damage in surrounding epithelial cells. Furthermore, DNA damage is known to trigger several responses, including recruitment of DNA repair proteins, transcriptional repression, chromatin modifications and other cell signaling events. Recruitment of epigenetic modifiers to chromatin in response to DNA damage results in transient covalent modifications to chromatin such as histone ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation and DNA methylation. DNA damage also alters non-coding RNA expression. All of these alterations have the potential to alter gene expression at sites of damage. Typically, these modifications and gene transcription are restored back to normal once the repair of the DNA damage is completed. However, chronic inflammation may induce sustained DNA damage and DNA damage responses that result in these transient covalent chromatin modifications becoming mitotically stable epigenetic alterations. Understanding how epigenetic alterations are initiated during chronic inflammation will allow us to develop pharmaceutical strategies to prevent or treat chronic inflammation-induced cancer. This review will focus on types of DNA damage and epigenetic alterations associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, the types of DNA damage and transient covalent chromatin modifications induced by inflammation and oxidative DNA damage and how these modifications may result in epigenetic alterations.",
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AU - Maiuri, Ashley R.

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AB - At sites of chronic inflammation epithelial cells are exposed to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can contribute to the initiation and development of many different human cancers. Aberrant epigenetic alterations that cause transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes are also implicated in many diseases associated with inflammation, including cancer. However, it is not clear how altered epigenetic gene silencing is initiated during chronic inflammation. The high level of ROS at sites of inflammation is known to induce oxidative DNA damage in surrounding epithelial cells. Furthermore, DNA damage is known to trigger several responses, including recruitment of DNA repair proteins, transcriptional repression, chromatin modifications and other cell signaling events. Recruitment of epigenetic modifiers to chromatin in response to DNA damage results in transient covalent modifications to chromatin such as histone ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation and DNA methylation. DNA damage also alters non-coding RNA expression. All of these alterations have the potential to alter gene expression at sites of damage. Typically, these modifications and gene transcription are restored back to normal once the repair of the DNA damage is completed. However, chronic inflammation may induce sustained DNA damage and DNA damage responses that result in these transient covalent chromatin modifications becoming mitotically stable epigenetic alterations. Understanding how epigenetic alterations are initiated during chronic inflammation will allow us to develop pharmaceutical strategies to prevent or treat chronic inflammation-induced cancer. This review will focus on types of DNA damage and epigenetic alterations associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, the types of DNA damage and transient covalent chromatin modifications induced by inflammation and oxidative DNA damage and how these modifications may result in epigenetic alterations.

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