The Feto-Maternal Health Cost of Intimate Partner Violence Among Delivery-Related Discharges in the United States, 2002-2009

Mulubrhan F. Mogos, Winta N. Araya, Saba W. Masho, Jason L. Salemi, Carol Shieh, Hamisu M. Salihu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations


Our purpose was to estimate the national prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among delivery-related discharges and to investigate its association with adverse feto-maternal birth outcomes and delivery-related cost. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of delivery-related hospital discharges from 2002 to 2009 was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify IPV, covariates, and outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between IPV and each outcome. Joinpoint regression was used for trend analysis. During the study period, 3,649 delivery-related discharges were diagnosed with IPV (11.2 per 100,000; 95% CI = [10.0, 12.4]). IPV diagnosis during delivery is associated with stillbirth (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI = [2.75, 6.17]), preterm birth (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI = [1.59, 2.44]), fetal death (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI = [1.99, 5.61]), infant with poor intrauterine growth (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI = [1.01, 2.40]), and increased inpatient hospital care cost (US$5,438.2 vs. US$4,080.1) per each discharge, incurring an additional cost of US$4,955,707 during the study period. IPV occurring during pregnancy has a significant health burden to both the mother and infant. Education about IPV; screening at periodic intervals, including during obstetric visits; and ongoing clinical care could help to reduce or eliminate adverse effects of pregnancy-related IPV. Preventing the lifelong consequences associated with IPV can have a positive effect on the overall health of all women and delivery-related health care cost.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)444-464
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Interpersonal Violence
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016


  • alcohol and drugs
  • alcohol and drugs
  • child abuse
  • domestic violence
  • sexual abuse
  • violence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Applied Psychology

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