The interaction of cannabinoids and opioids on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice

Hamed Shafaroodi, Morteza Samini, Leila Moezi, Houman Homayoun, Hamed Sadeghipour, Sina Tavakoli, Amir Reza Hajrasouliha, Ahmad Reza Dehpour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

83 Scopus citations


Cannabinoid and opioid receptor agonists show functional interactions in a number of their physiological effects. Regarding the seizure-modulating properties of both classes of receptors, the present study examined the possibility of a functional interaction between these receptors. We used acute systemic administration of cannabinoid selective CB1 receptor agonist (ACPA) and antagonist (AM251) and opioid receptor agonist (morphine) and antagonists (naltrexone and norbinaltorphimine) in a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Acute administration of ACPA (1.5-2 mg/kg) increased the PTZ-induced seizure threshold. In contrast, AM251 (0.5-2 mg/kg) dose-dependently decreased the seizure threshold. Low dose of AM251 (0.5 mg/kg), which did not alter seizure threshold by itself, reversed the anticonvulsant effect of ACPA (2 mg/kg), showing a CB1 receptor-mediated mechanism. Naltrexone (1 or 10 mg/kg) but not specific κ-opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine (5 mg/kg) completely reversed the anticonvulsant effect of ACPA (2 mg/kg). Moreover, the combination of the lower doses of AM251 (0.5 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.3 mg/kg) had an additive effect in blocking the anticonvulsant effect of ACPA. In accordance with previous reports, morphine exerted biphasic effects on clonic seizure threshold with anticonvulsant effect at lower (0.5-1 mg/kg) and proconvulsant effect at a higher (30 mg/kg) doses. The pretreatment with AM251 blocked the anticonvulsant effect of morphine at 1 mg/kg, while pretreatment with ACPA (1 mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of morphine at 0.5 mg/kg. The proconvulsant effect of morphine at 30 mg/kg was also inhibited by AM251 (2 mg/kg). A similar interaction between cannabinoids and opioids was also detected on their anticonvulsant effects against the generalized tonic-clonic model of seizure. In conclusion, cannabinoids and opioids show functional interactions on modulation of seizure susceptibility.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)390-400
Number of pages11
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2004



  • Cannabinoid
  • Mice
  • Opioid
  • Pentylenetetrazole
  • Seizure threshold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Shafaroodi, H., Samini, M., Moezi, L., Homayoun, H., Sadeghipour, H., Tavakoli, S., Hajrasouliha, A. R., & Dehpour, A. R. (2004). The interaction of cannabinoids and opioids on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice. Neuropharmacology, 47(3), 390-400.