The "LEARn" (Latent Early-life Associated Regulation) model integrates environmental risk factors and the developmental basis of Alzheimer's disease, and proposes remedial steps

Debomoy Lahiri, Bryan Maloney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

87 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the 6th leading cause of death in the USA. In addition to neurological and psychiatric symptoms, AD is characterized by deficiencies in S-adenylmethionine (SAM), vitamin B12, and folate. Deficiency in these nutrients has been shown to result in gene promoter methylation with upregulation of AD-associated genes. While some cases of AD are due to specific mutations in genes such as presenilin 1 (PSEN) and the amyloid-β peptide precursor protein (APP), these familial AD (FAD) cases account for a minority of cases. The majority of genetic contribution consists of risk factors with incomplete penetrance. Several environmental risk factors, such as cholesterol and diet, head trauma, and reduced levels of exercise, have also been determined for AD. Nevertheless, the majority of risk for AD appears to be established early in life. We propose to explain this via the LEARn (Latent Early-life Associated Regulation) model. LEARn-AD (LAD) would be a "two-hit" disorder, wherein the first hit would occur due to environmental stress within the regulatory sequences of AD-associated genes, maintained by epigenetic changes such as in DNA methylation. This hit would most likely come in early childhood. The second hit could consist of further stress, such as head trauma, poor mid-life diet, or even general changes in expression of genes that occur later in life independent of any pathogenesis. Given that the primary risk for LAD would be maintained by DNA (hypo)methylation, we propose that long-term nutritional remediation based on the LEARn model, or LEARn-based nutritional gain (LEARnING), beginning early in life, would significantly reduce risk for AD late in life.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-296
Number of pages6
JournalExperimental Gerontology
Volume45
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2010

Fingerprint

Alzheimer Disease
Genes
DNA Methylation
Nutrition
Craniocerebral Trauma
Presenilin-1
Diet
Methylation
Protein Precursors
Penetrance
Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor
Vitamin B 12
Remediation
Folic Acid
Amyloid
Epigenomics
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Nutrients
Psychiatry
Cause of Death

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Chemicals
  • Dementia
  • Diet
  • Environment
  • Epigenetics
  • Gene promoter
  • Late-life disorder
  • Latent
  • Metals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Endocrinology
  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

@article{9a34385228404bc4bebf294fc8a8346c,
title = "The {"}LEARn{"} (Latent Early-life Associated Regulation) model integrates environmental risk factors and the developmental basis of Alzheimer's disease, and proposes remedial steps",
abstract = "The neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the 6th leading cause of death in the USA. In addition to neurological and psychiatric symptoms, AD is characterized by deficiencies in S-adenylmethionine (SAM), vitamin B12, and folate. Deficiency in these nutrients has been shown to result in gene promoter methylation with upregulation of AD-associated genes. While some cases of AD are due to specific mutations in genes such as presenilin 1 (PSEN) and the amyloid-β peptide precursor protein (APP), these familial AD (FAD) cases account for a minority of cases. The majority of genetic contribution consists of risk factors with incomplete penetrance. Several environmental risk factors, such as cholesterol and diet, head trauma, and reduced levels of exercise, have also been determined for AD. Nevertheless, the majority of risk for AD appears to be established early in life. We propose to explain this via the LEARn (Latent Early-life Associated Regulation) model. LEARn-AD (LAD) would be a {"}two-hit{"} disorder, wherein the first hit would occur due to environmental stress within the regulatory sequences of AD-associated genes, maintained by epigenetic changes such as in DNA methylation. This hit would most likely come in early childhood. The second hit could consist of further stress, such as head trauma, poor mid-life diet, or even general changes in expression of genes that occur later in life independent of any pathogenesis. Given that the primary risk for LAD would be maintained by DNA (hypo)methylation, we propose that long-term nutritional remediation based on the LEARn model, or LEARn-based nutritional gain (LEARnING), beginning early in life, would significantly reduce risk for AD late in life.",
keywords = "Aging, Chemicals, Dementia, Diet, Environment, Epigenetics, Gene promoter, Late-life disorder, Latent, Metals",
author = "Debomoy Lahiri and Bryan Maloney",
year = "2010",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1016/j.exger.2010.01.001",
language = "English",
volume = "45",
pages = "291--296",
journal = "Experimental Gerontology",
issn = "0531-5565",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The "LEARn" (Latent Early-life Associated Regulation) model integrates environmental risk factors and the developmental basis of Alzheimer's disease, and proposes remedial steps

AU - Lahiri, Debomoy

AU - Maloney, Bryan

PY - 2010/4

Y1 - 2010/4

N2 - The neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the 6th leading cause of death in the USA. In addition to neurological and psychiatric symptoms, AD is characterized by deficiencies in S-adenylmethionine (SAM), vitamin B12, and folate. Deficiency in these nutrients has been shown to result in gene promoter methylation with upregulation of AD-associated genes. While some cases of AD are due to specific mutations in genes such as presenilin 1 (PSEN) and the amyloid-β peptide precursor protein (APP), these familial AD (FAD) cases account for a minority of cases. The majority of genetic contribution consists of risk factors with incomplete penetrance. Several environmental risk factors, such as cholesterol and diet, head trauma, and reduced levels of exercise, have also been determined for AD. Nevertheless, the majority of risk for AD appears to be established early in life. We propose to explain this via the LEARn (Latent Early-life Associated Regulation) model. LEARn-AD (LAD) would be a "two-hit" disorder, wherein the first hit would occur due to environmental stress within the regulatory sequences of AD-associated genes, maintained by epigenetic changes such as in DNA methylation. This hit would most likely come in early childhood. The second hit could consist of further stress, such as head trauma, poor mid-life diet, or even general changes in expression of genes that occur later in life independent of any pathogenesis. Given that the primary risk for LAD would be maintained by DNA (hypo)methylation, we propose that long-term nutritional remediation based on the LEARn model, or LEARn-based nutritional gain (LEARnING), beginning early in life, would significantly reduce risk for AD late in life.

AB - The neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the 6th leading cause of death in the USA. In addition to neurological and psychiatric symptoms, AD is characterized by deficiencies in S-adenylmethionine (SAM), vitamin B12, and folate. Deficiency in these nutrients has been shown to result in gene promoter methylation with upregulation of AD-associated genes. While some cases of AD are due to specific mutations in genes such as presenilin 1 (PSEN) and the amyloid-β peptide precursor protein (APP), these familial AD (FAD) cases account for a minority of cases. The majority of genetic contribution consists of risk factors with incomplete penetrance. Several environmental risk factors, such as cholesterol and diet, head trauma, and reduced levels of exercise, have also been determined for AD. Nevertheless, the majority of risk for AD appears to be established early in life. We propose to explain this via the LEARn (Latent Early-life Associated Regulation) model. LEARn-AD (LAD) would be a "two-hit" disorder, wherein the first hit would occur due to environmental stress within the regulatory sequences of AD-associated genes, maintained by epigenetic changes such as in DNA methylation. This hit would most likely come in early childhood. The second hit could consist of further stress, such as head trauma, poor mid-life diet, or even general changes in expression of genes that occur later in life independent of any pathogenesis. Given that the primary risk for LAD would be maintained by DNA (hypo)methylation, we propose that long-term nutritional remediation based on the LEARn model, or LEARn-based nutritional gain (LEARnING), beginning early in life, would significantly reduce risk for AD late in life.

KW - Aging

KW - Chemicals

KW - Dementia

KW - Diet

KW - Environment

KW - Epigenetics

KW - Gene promoter

KW - Late-life disorder

KW - Latent

KW - Metals

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77649339701&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77649339701&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.exger.2010.01.001

DO - 10.1016/j.exger.2010.01.001

M3 - Article

C2 - 20064601

AN - SCOPUS:77649339701

VL - 45

SP - 291

EP - 296

JO - Experimental Gerontology

JF - Experimental Gerontology

SN - 0531-5565

IS - 4

ER -