Background: The organochlorine dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a known estrogen mimic and endocrine disruptor, has been linked to animal and human disorders. However, the detailed mechanism(s) by which DDT affects cellular physiology remains incompletely defined. Objectives: We and others have shown that DDT activates cell-signaling cascades, culminating in the activation of estrogen receptor-dependent and -independent gene expression. Here, we identify a mechanism by which DDT alters cellular signaling and gene expression, independent of the estrogen receptor. Methods: We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction array analysis of gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using either estradiol (E<inf>2</inf>) or o,p'-DDT to identify distinct cellular gene expression responses. To elucidate the mechanisms by which DDT regulates cell signaling, we used molecular and pharmacological techniques. Results: E<inf>2</inf> and DDT treatment both altered the expression of many of the genes assayed, but up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) was observed only after DDT treatment, and this increase was not affected by the pure estrogen receptor α antagonist ICI 182780. Furthermore, DDT increased activation of the HIF-1 response element (HRE), a known enhancer of the VEGFA gene. This DDT-mediated increase in HRE activity was augmented by the coactivator CBP (CREB-binding protein) and was dependent on the p38 pathway. Conclusions: DDT up-regulated the expression of several genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that were not altered by treatment with E<inf>2</inf>, including VEGFA. We propose that this DDT-initiated, ER-independent stimulation of gene expression is due to DDT's ability to initiate crosstalk between MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathways and transcriptional coactivators.
- Breast cancer
- Endocrine-disrupting chemical
- p38 kinase
- Vascular endothelial growth factor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health