The Personality Assessment Inventory in individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

George J. Demakis, Flora Hammond, Allison Knotts, Douglas B. Cooper, Pamelia Clement, Jan Kennedy, Tom Sawyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Scopus citations


This study examined the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in 95 individuals who had suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were recruited from a rehabilitation hospital (n = 60) and a military hospital (n = 35); despite differences in demographics and injury characteristics groups did not differ on any of the clinical scales and were thus combined. In the combined group, the highest mean clinical scale elevations were on Somatic Complaints, Depression, and Borderline Features and the most common configural profiles, based on cluster analysis, were Cluster 1 (no prominent elevations), Cluster 6 (social isolation and confused thinking), and Cluster 2 (depression and withdrawal). Factor analysis indicated a robust three-factor solution that accounted for 74.86 percent of the variance and was similar to findings from the psychiatric and non-psychiatric populations in the standardization sample. The above findings are compared with the previous literature on psychopathology in TBI, particularly in regards to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), as well as previous psychometric research on the PAI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)123-130
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of Clinical Neuropsychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Personality Assessment Inventory
  • Psychometric research
  • Traumatic Brain Injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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