The Role of Age and Excess Body Mass Index in Progression to Type 1 Diabetes in At-Risk Adults

Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Given the global rise in both type 1 diabetes incidence and obesity, the role of body mass index (BMI) on type 1 diabetes pathophysiology has gained great interest. Sustained excess BMI in pediatric participants of the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) cohort increased risk for progression to type 1 diabetes, but the effects of age and obesity in adults remain largely unknown.

Objective: To determine the effect of age and sustained obesity on the risk for type 1 diabetes in adult participants in the TrialNet PTP cohort (i.e., nondiabetic autoantibody-positive relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes).

Research Design and Methods: Longitudinally accumulated BMI >25 kg/m2 was calculated to generate a cumulative excess BMI (ceBMI) for each participant, with ceBMI values ≥0 kg/m2 and ≥5 kg/m2 representing sustained overweight or obese status, respectively. Recursive partitioning analysis yielded sex- and age-specific thresholds for ceBMI that confer the greatest risk for type 1 diabetes progression.

Results: In this cohort of 665 adults (age 20 to 50 years; median follow-up, 3.9 years), 49 participants developed type 1 diabetes. Age was an independent protective factor for type 1 diabetes progression (hazard ratio, 0.95; P = 0.008), with a threshold of >35 years that reduced risk for type 1 diabetes. In men age >35 years and women age <35 years, sustained obesity (ceBMI ≥5 kg/m2) increased the risk for type 1 diabetes.

Conclusions: Age is an important factor for type 1 diabetes progression in adults and influences the impact of elevated BMI, indicating an interplay of excess weight, age, and sex in adult type 1 diabetes pathophysiology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4596-4603
Number of pages8
JournalThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Volume102
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

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Medical problems
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Body Mass Index
Obesity
Pediatrics
Autoantibodies
Hazards
Research Design
Weights and Measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

Cite this

The Role of Age and Excess Body Mass Index in Progression to Type 1 Diabetes in At-Risk Adults. / Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group.

In: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, Vol. 102, No. 12, 01.12.2017, p. 4596-4603.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "The Role of Age and Excess Body Mass Index in Progression to Type 1 Diabetes in At-Risk Adults",
abstract = "Background: Given the global rise in both type 1 diabetes incidence and obesity, the role of body mass index (BMI) on type 1 diabetes pathophysiology has gained great interest. Sustained excess BMI in pediatric participants of the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) cohort increased risk for progression to type 1 diabetes, but the effects of age and obesity in adults remain largely unknown.Objective: To determine the effect of age and sustained obesity on the risk for type 1 diabetes in adult participants in the TrialNet PTP cohort (i.e., nondiabetic autoantibody-positive relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes).Research Design and Methods: Longitudinally accumulated BMI >25 kg/m2 was calculated to generate a cumulative excess BMI (ceBMI) for each participant, with ceBMI values ≥0 kg/m2 and ≥5 kg/m2 representing sustained overweight or obese status, respectively. Recursive partitioning analysis yielded sex- and age-specific thresholds for ceBMI that confer the greatest risk for type 1 diabetes progression.Results: In this cohort of 665 adults (age 20 to 50 years; median follow-up, 3.9 years), 49 participants developed type 1 diabetes. Age was an independent protective factor for type 1 diabetes progression (hazard ratio, 0.95; P = 0.008), with a threshold of >35 years that reduced risk for type 1 diabetes. In men age >35 years and women age <35 years, sustained obesity (ceBMI ≥5 kg/m2) increased the risk for type 1 diabetes.Conclusions: Age is an important factor for type 1 diabetes progression in adults and influences the impact of elevated BMI, indicating an interplay of excess weight, age, and sex in adult type 1 diabetes pathophysiology.",
author = "{Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group} and Ferrara, {Christine T.} and Geyer, {Susan M.} and Carmella Evans-Molina and Libman, {Ingrid M.} and Becker, {Dorothy J.} and Wentworth, {John M.} and Antoinette Moran and Gitelman, {Stephen E.} and Redondo, {Maria J.}",
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T1 - The Role of Age and Excess Body Mass Index in Progression to Type 1 Diabetes in At-Risk Adults

AU - Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group

AU - Ferrara, Christine T.

AU - Geyer, Susan M.

AU - Evans-Molina, Carmella

AU - Libman, Ingrid M.

AU - Becker, Dorothy J.

AU - Wentworth, John M.

AU - Moran, Antoinette

AU - Gitelman, Stephen E.

AU - Redondo, Maria J.

PY - 2017/12/1

Y1 - 2017/12/1

N2 - Background: Given the global rise in both type 1 diabetes incidence and obesity, the role of body mass index (BMI) on type 1 diabetes pathophysiology has gained great interest. Sustained excess BMI in pediatric participants of the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) cohort increased risk for progression to type 1 diabetes, but the effects of age and obesity in adults remain largely unknown.Objective: To determine the effect of age and sustained obesity on the risk for type 1 diabetes in adult participants in the TrialNet PTP cohort (i.e., nondiabetic autoantibody-positive relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes).Research Design and Methods: Longitudinally accumulated BMI >25 kg/m2 was calculated to generate a cumulative excess BMI (ceBMI) for each participant, with ceBMI values ≥0 kg/m2 and ≥5 kg/m2 representing sustained overweight or obese status, respectively. Recursive partitioning analysis yielded sex- and age-specific thresholds for ceBMI that confer the greatest risk for type 1 diabetes progression.Results: In this cohort of 665 adults (age 20 to 50 years; median follow-up, 3.9 years), 49 participants developed type 1 diabetes. Age was an independent protective factor for type 1 diabetes progression (hazard ratio, 0.95; P = 0.008), with a threshold of >35 years that reduced risk for type 1 diabetes. In men age >35 years and women age <35 years, sustained obesity (ceBMI ≥5 kg/m2) increased the risk for type 1 diabetes.Conclusions: Age is an important factor for type 1 diabetes progression in adults and influences the impact of elevated BMI, indicating an interplay of excess weight, age, and sex in adult type 1 diabetes pathophysiology.

AB - Background: Given the global rise in both type 1 diabetes incidence and obesity, the role of body mass index (BMI) on type 1 diabetes pathophysiology has gained great interest. Sustained excess BMI in pediatric participants of the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) cohort increased risk for progression to type 1 diabetes, but the effects of age and obesity in adults remain largely unknown.Objective: To determine the effect of age and sustained obesity on the risk for type 1 diabetes in adult participants in the TrialNet PTP cohort (i.e., nondiabetic autoantibody-positive relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes).Research Design and Methods: Longitudinally accumulated BMI >25 kg/m2 was calculated to generate a cumulative excess BMI (ceBMI) for each participant, with ceBMI values ≥0 kg/m2 and ≥5 kg/m2 representing sustained overweight or obese status, respectively. Recursive partitioning analysis yielded sex- and age-specific thresholds for ceBMI that confer the greatest risk for type 1 diabetes progression.Results: In this cohort of 665 adults (age 20 to 50 years; median follow-up, 3.9 years), 49 participants developed type 1 diabetes. Age was an independent protective factor for type 1 diabetes progression (hazard ratio, 0.95; P = 0.008), with a threshold of >35 years that reduced risk for type 1 diabetes. In men age >35 years and women age <35 years, sustained obesity (ceBMI ≥5 kg/m2) increased the risk for type 1 diabetes.Conclusions: Age is an important factor for type 1 diabetes progression in adults and influences the impact of elevated BMI, indicating an interplay of excess weight, age, and sex in adult type 1 diabetes pathophysiology.

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