The level of Ca inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is an important determinant of functional activity of the Ca release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR) in cardiac muscle. However, the molecular basis of RyR regulation by luminal Ca remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of the cardiac SR luminal auxiliary proteins calsequestrin (CSQ), triadin 1, and junctin in forming the luminal calcium sensor for the cardiac RyR. Recordings of single RyR channels incorporated into lipid bilayers, from either SR vesicle or purified RyR preparations, were performed in the presence of MgATP using Cs+ as the charge carrier. Raising luminal [Ca] from 20 μM to 5 mM increased the open channel probability (Po) of native RyRs in SR vesicles, but not of purified RyRs. Adding CSQ to the luminal side of the purified channels produced no significant changes in Po, nor did it restore the ability of RyRs to respond to luminal Ca. When triadin 1 and junctin were added to the luminal side of purified channels, RyR P o increased significantly; however, the channels still remained unresponsive to changes in luminal [Ca]. In RyRs reassociated with triadin 1 and junctin, adding luminal CSQ produced a significant decrease in activity. After reassociation with all three proteins, RyRs responded to rises of luminal [Ca] by increasing their Po. These results suggest that a complex of CSQ, triadin 1, and junctin confer RyR luminal Ca sensitivity. CSQ apparently serves as a luminal Ca sensor that inhibits the channel at low luminal [Ca], whereas triadin 1 and/or junctin may be required to mediate interactions of CSQ with RyR.
ASJC Scopus subject areas