Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in aging men are extremely common. They have historically been attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), enlargement of the prostate, and bladder outlet obstruction. However, recent studies have revealed acute and chronic inflammation to be highly associated with LUTS, correlated with prostatic enlargement, and implicated as a cause of prostatic fibrosis that contributes to bladder outlet obstruction. This review examines the evidence implicating inflammation and fibrosis in BPH/LUTS. It identifies potential mechanisms by which inflammation may drive nociceptive signaling as well as hyperplastic growth and fibrosis and identifies targets for pharmacological intervention. This is a promising area for research and development of novel therapies to prevent or more effectively treat LUTS in aging men.
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