Aims of this chapter on the role of toxicoproteomics in assessing organ-specific toxicity are to define the field of toxicoproteomics, describe its development among global technologies, and show potential uses in experimental toxicological research, preclinical testing and mechanistic biological research. Disciplines within proteomics deployed in preclinical research are described as Tier I analysis, involving global protein mapping and protein profiling for differential expression, and Tier II proteomic analysis, including global methods for description of function, structure, interactions and post-translational modification of proteins. Proteomic platforms used in toxicoproteomics research are briefly reviewed. Preclinical toxicoproteomic studies with model liver and kidney toxicants are critically assessed for their contributions toward understanding pathophysiology and in biomarker discovery. Toxicoproteomics research conducted in other organs and tissues are briefly discussed as well. The final section suggests several key developments involving new approaches and research focus areas for the field of toxicoproteomics as a new tool for toxicological pathology.
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