The route to personalized medicine in bladder cancer: where do we stand?

Francesco Massari, Chiara Ciccarese, Matteo Santoni, Matteo Brunelli, Alessandro Conti, Alessandra Modena, Rodolfo Montironi, Daniele Santini, Liang Cheng, Guido Martignoni, Stefano Cascinu, Giampaolo Tortora

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Recent advances in molecular biology and drug design have described novel targets in bladder cancer. EGFR, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), VEGFR, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, PD-1, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), Aurora kinase A, and miRNA are just examples of these opening frontiers. In addition, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are promising candidates for future therapeutic approaches. Novel agents, combination, and sequences are emerging from the 747 clinical studies presently in course in bladder cancer to optimize patient outcomes. This report describes the emerging targets and provides an update on ongoing phase I, II, and III trials and preliminary results on targeted agents, used alone, in sequences, or in combination for patients with bladder cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)325-336
Number of pages12
JournalTargeted Oncology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 5 2015


  • Bladder cancer
  • Novel agents
  • Personalized medicine
  • Target agents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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