Necrotic testicular tumors are relatively frequent and can present a significant diagnostic challenge. Because of differing treatments for seminomas versus nonseminomas, accurate diagnosis is critical. Eleven totally (n=9) or almost totally (n=2) necrotic testicular tumors were retrieved from our consult files. The submitting pathologists favored benign processes in 4 cases, Leydig cell tumor in 1, and lymphoma in 1. The cases were evaluated for histologic features and, when material was available, by immunostaining with 7 antibodies: keratin (AE1/AE3), OCT4, placental alkaline phosphatase, α-fetoprotein (AFP), CD117, CD30, and S100. Only distinct reactivity in a cellular distribution in the necrotic zone was considered positive; nuclear reactivity alone was scored for OCT4 and membrane reactivity for CD117 and CD30. Mean patient age was 35 years (range 16-63). Mean tumor size was 19?-mm (range 7-53). All patients presented with unilateral testicular masses (6 right, 5 left); 2 also had acute pain. The combination of histologic features, immunostains and, in 1 case, serum AFP permitted classification of 8 tumors (4 seminomas, 3 embryonal carcinomas, 1 yolk sac tumor). Three were not classifiable. The necrotic seminomas lacked associated coarse intratubular calcifications and were positive for OCT4 (4/4) and CD117 (3/3) but negative for keratin (0/4) and CD30 (0/4). The necrotic embryonal carcinomas had associated coarse intratubular calcifications and were positive for keratin (2/3), OCT4 (2/2), and CD30 (3/3). OCT4 stained 1 unclassifiable tumor, which lacked other specific markers. We did not find placental alkaline phosphatase, AFP, and S100 stains useful, although S100 did highlight tumor "ghost" cells in 1 case. Other features in most cases included intratubular germ cell neoplasia (6/11), tubular atrophy/hyalinization (10/11), tumor "ghost" cells (10/11), scar (9/11), and inflammation (10/11). Of the 5 patients with available follow-up, 3 were free of disease at 1, 5, and 8 years after orchiectomy (2 necrotic seminomas and 1 germ cell tumor, unclassified). One patient with yolk sac tumor (age 63?-y) developed widespread metastases after 15 months and died of disease. The final case was initially misinterpreted as "testicular infarction, no malignancy" and 16 months later the patient developed a large retroperitoneal seminoma. Most totally necrotic testicular tumors can be placed into clinically important groups by assessment for coarse intratubular calcifications and staining reactions for keratin, OCT4, CD117, and CD30.
- Germ cell tumor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine