The vaccinia virus N1L ORF encodes a protein that enhances virulence and replication of the virus by an unknown mechanism. It has been studied for its ability to enhance viral replication and dissemination in the brain and more recently has been linked to an immunomodulatory role in which it inhibits the activation of cytokine transcription activators in Toll-like receptor signaling pathways after pathogen recognition. The effect of N1L on the release of cytokines from human primary monocytes was investigated. Secretion of the proinflammatory, antiviral cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-α, IFN-β, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was found to be inhibited by the presence of the N1L protein.
- N1L ORF
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)