Three-dimensional quantification of pretorqued nickel-titanium wires in edgewise and prescription brackets

Nitika Mittal, Zeyang Xia, Jie Chen, Kelton T. Stewart, Sean Shih Yao Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Objective: To quantify the three-dimensional moments and forces produced by pretorqued nickeltitanium (NiTi) rectangular archwires fully engaged in 0.018- and 0.022-inch slots of central incisor and molar edgewise and prescription brackets. Materials and Methods: Ten identical acrylic dental models with retroclined maxillary incisors were fabricated for bonding with various bracket-wire combinations. Edgewise, Roth, and MBT brackets with 0.018- and 0.022-inch slots were bonded in a simulated 2 3 4 clinical scenario. The left central incisor and molar were sectioned and attached to load cells. Correspondingly sized straight and pretorqued NiTi archwires were ligated to the brackets using 0.010-inch ligatures. Each load cell simultaneously measured three force (Fx, Fy, Fz) and three moment (Mx, My, Mz) components. The faciolingual, mesiodistal, and inciso-occluso/apical axes of the teeth corresponded to the x, y, and z axes of the load cells, respectively. Each wire was removed and retested seven times. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined the effects of wire type, wire size, and bracket type on the measured orthodontic load systems. Interactions among the three effects were examined and pair-wise comparisons between significant combinations were performed. Results: The force and moment components on each tooth were quantified according to their local coordinate axes. The three-way ANOVA interaction terms were significant for all force and moment measurements (P < .05), except for Fy (P > .05). Conclusion: The pretorqued wire generates a significantly larger incisor facial crown torquing moment in the MBT prescription compared to Roth, edgewise, and the straight NiTi wire.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)484-490
Number of pages7
JournalAngle Orthodontist
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2013


  • Force
  • Moment
  • NiTi
  • Pretorque
  • Wire

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics

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