Timing of do-not-resuscitate orders for hospitalized older adults who require a surrogate decision-maker

Alexia Torke, Greg Sachs, Paul Helft, Sandra Petronio, Christianna Purnell, Siu Hui, Christopher Callahan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To examine the frequency of surrogate decisions for in-hospital do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders and the timing of DNR order entry for surrogate decisions. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large, urban, public hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized adults aged 65 and older over a 3-year period (1/1/2004-12/31/2006) with a DNR order during their hospital stay. MEASUREMENTS: Electronic chart review provided data on frequency of surrogate decisions, patient demographic and clinical characteristics, and timing of DNR orders. RESULTS: Of 668 patients, the ordering physician indicated that the DNR decision was made with the patient in 191 cases (28.9%), the surrogate in 389 (58.2%), and both in 88 (13.2%). Patients who required a surrogate were more likely to be in the intensive care unit (62.2% vs 39.8%, P<.001) but did not differ according to demographic characteristics. By hospital Day 3, 77.6% of patient decisions, 61.9% of surrogate decisions, and 58.0% of shared decisions had been made. In multivariable models, the number of days from admission to DNR order was higher for surrogate (odds ratio (OR)=1.97, P<.001) and shared decisions (OR=1.48, P=.009) than for patient decisions. The adjusted hazard ratio for hospital death was higher for patients with surrogate than patient decisions (2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.56-4.36). Patients whose DNR orders were written on Day 6 or later were twice as likely to die in the hospital (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.45-3.36) than patients with earlier DNR orders. CONCLUSION: For patients who have a DNR order entered during their hospital stay, order entry occurs later when a surrogate is involved. Surrogate decision-making may take longer because of the greater ethical, emotional, or communication complexity of making decisions with surrogates than with patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1326-1331
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
Volume59
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2011

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Resuscitation Orders
Odds Ratio
Length of Stay
Decision Making
Demography
Confidence Intervals
Public Hospitals
Urban Hospitals
Intensive Care Units

Keywords

  • decision-making
  • end of life
  • proxy
  • resuscitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

Cite this

@article{82cd4e4dd7954cc885fb37518d8d6569,
title = "Timing of do-not-resuscitate orders for hospitalized older adults who require a surrogate decision-maker",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: To examine the frequency of surrogate decisions for in-hospital do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders and the timing of DNR order entry for surrogate decisions. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large, urban, public hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized adults aged 65 and older over a 3-year period (1/1/2004-12/31/2006) with a DNR order during their hospital stay. MEASUREMENTS: Electronic chart review provided data on frequency of surrogate decisions, patient demographic and clinical characteristics, and timing of DNR orders. RESULTS: Of 668 patients, the ordering physician indicated that the DNR decision was made with the patient in 191 cases (28.9{\%}), the surrogate in 389 (58.2{\%}), and both in 88 (13.2{\%}). Patients who required a surrogate were more likely to be in the intensive care unit (62.2{\%} vs 39.8{\%}, P<.001) but did not differ according to demographic characteristics. By hospital Day 3, 77.6{\%} of patient decisions, 61.9{\%} of surrogate decisions, and 58.0{\%} of shared decisions had been made. In multivariable models, the number of days from admission to DNR order was higher for surrogate (odds ratio (OR)=1.97, P<.001) and shared decisions (OR=1.48, P=.009) than for patient decisions. The adjusted hazard ratio for hospital death was higher for patients with surrogate than patient decisions (2.61, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI)=1.56-4.36). Patients whose DNR orders were written on Day 6 or later were twice as likely to die in the hospital (OR=2.20, 95{\%} CI=1.45-3.36) than patients with earlier DNR orders. CONCLUSION: For patients who have a DNR order entered during their hospital stay, order entry occurs later when a surrogate is involved. Surrogate decision-making may take longer because of the greater ethical, emotional, or communication complexity of making decisions with surrogates than with patients.",
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author = "Alexia Torke and Greg Sachs and Paul Helft and Sandra Petronio and Christianna Purnell and Siu Hui and Christopher Callahan",
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T1 - Timing of do-not-resuscitate orders for hospitalized older adults who require a surrogate decision-maker

AU - Torke, Alexia

AU - Sachs, Greg

AU - Helft, Paul

AU - Petronio, Sandra

AU - Purnell, Christianna

AU - Hui, Siu

AU - Callahan, Christopher

PY - 2011/7

Y1 - 2011/7

N2 - OBJECTIVES: To examine the frequency of surrogate decisions for in-hospital do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders and the timing of DNR order entry for surrogate decisions. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large, urban, public hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized adults aged 65 and older over a 3-year period (1/1/2004-12/31/2006) with a DNR order during their hospital stay. MEASUREMENTS: Electronic chart review provided data on frequency of surrogate decisions, patient demographic and clinical characteristics, and timing of DNR orders. RESULTS: Of 668 patients, the ordering physician indicated that the DNR decision was made with the patient in 191 cases (28.9%), the surrogate in 389 (58.2%), and both in 88 (13.2%). Patients who required a surrogate were more likely to be in the intensive care unit (62.2% vs 39.8%, P<.001) but did not differ according to demographic characteristics. By hospital Day 3, 77.6% of patient decisions, 61.9% of surrogate decisions, and 58.0% of shared decisions had been made. In multivariable models, the number of days from admission to DNR order was higher for surrogate (odds ratio (OR)=1.97, P<.001) and shared decisions (OR=1.48, P=.009) than for patient decisions. The adjusted hazard ratio for hospital death was higher for patients with surrogate than patient decisions (2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.56-4.36). Patients whose DNR orders were written on Day 6 or later were twice as likely to die in the hospital (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.45-3.36) than patients with earlier DNR orders. CONCLUSION: For patients who have a DNR order entered during their hospital stay, order entry occurs later when a surrogate is involved. Surrogate decision-making may take longer because of the greater ethical, emotional, or communication complexity of making decisions with surrogates than with patients.

AB - OBJECTIVES: To examine the frequency of surrogate decisions for in-hospital do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders and the timing of DNR order entry for surrogate decisions. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large, urban, public hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized adults aged 65 and older over a 3-year period (1/1/2004-12/31/2006) with a DNR order during their hospital stay. MEASUREMENTS: Electronic chart review provided data on frequency of surrogate decisions, patient demographic and clinical characteristics, and timing of DNR orders. RESULTS: Of 668 patients, the ordering physician indicated that the DNR decision was made with the patient in 191 cases (28.9%), the surrogate in 389 (58.2%), and both in 88 (13.2%). Patients who required a surrogate were more likely to be in the intensive care unit (62.2% vs 39.8%, P<.001) but did not differ according to demographic characteristics. By hospital Day 3, 77.6% of patient decisions, 61.9% of surrogate decisions, and 58.0% of shared decisions had been made. In multivariable models, the number of days from admission to DNR order was higher for surrogate (odds ratio (OR)=1.97, P<.001) and shared decisions (OR=1.48, P=.009) than for patient decisions. The adjusted hazard ratio for hospital death was higher for patients with surrogate than patient decisions (2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.56-4.36). Patients whose DNR orders were written on Day 6 or later were twice as likely to die in the hospital (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.45-3.36) than patients with earlier DNR orders. CONCLUSION: For patients who have a DNR order entered during their hospital stay, order entry occurs later when a surrogate is involved. Surrogate decision-making may take longer because of the greater ethical, emotional, or communication complexity of making decisions with surrogates than with patients.

KW - decision-making

KW - end of life

KW - proxy

KW - resuscitation

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