Tobacco: A risk factor for periodontal disease

Nouf Al-Shibani, Nawaf Labban, Eman Allam, L. Jack Windsor

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Periodontal disease results from complex interactions between infectious agents and host factors. The disease expression can be modified by environmental, acquired, and genetic risk factors. Tobacco usage, especially smoking, is considered a major modifiable risk factor for periodontal disease. In addition to periodontal disease, tobacco usage is also a risk factor for oral cancer and its recurrence, dental cariesand congenital defects in children from mothers who smoke while pregnant. In periodontal disease, smokers have deeper probing depths, more gingival recession, more alveolar loss and more furcation involvement than non-smokers. They also show less favorable responses to various kinds of periodontal treatments including non-surgical, surgical, regenerative procedures and dental implants. It is clear from epidemiology studies that tobacco usage is correlated with periodontal disease. This chapter reviews the evidence for the association between periodontal disease and tobacco, and describes what is currently known about how tobacco and its components affect the periodontal tissues that result in tissue damage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPeriodontal Disease
Subtitle of host publicationSymptoms, Treatment and Prevention
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)9781617617393
StatePublished - Dec 1 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

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    Al-Shibani, N., Labban, N., Allam, E., & Windsor, L. J. (2011). Tobacco: A risk factor for periodontal disease. In Periodontal Disease: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention (pp. 122-135). Nova Science Publishers, Inc..