Tobacco use and prostate cancer in Blacks and Whites in the United States

Richard B. Hayes, Linda M. Pottern, G. Marie Swanson, Jonathan M. Liff, Janet B. Schoenberg, Raymond S. Greenberg, Ann Grossbart Schwartz, Linda Morris Brown, Debra T. Silverman, Robert N. Hoover

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    30 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Prostate cancer occurs more frequently in Blacks than Whites in the United States. A population-based case-control study which investigated the association between tobacco use and prostate cancer risk was carried out among 981 pathologically confirmed cases (479 Blacks, 502 Whites) of prostate cancer, diagnosed between 1 August 1986 and 30 April 1989, and 1,315 controls (594 Blacks, 721 Whites). Study subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, resided in Atlanta (GA), Detroit (MI), and 10 counties in New Jersey, geographic areas covered by three, population-based, cancer registries. No excesses in risk for prostate cancer were seen for former cigarette smokers, in Blacks (odds ratio [OR]=1.1, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.7-1.5) and in Whites (OR=1.2, CI=0.9-1.6), or for current cigarette smokers, in Blacks (OR=1.0, CI=0.7-1.4) and in Whites (OR=1.2, CI=0.8-1.7). Increases in risk were noted for smokers of 40 or more cigarettes per day, among former (OR=1.4, CI=1.0-1.5) and current (OR=1.5, CI=1.0-2.4) smokers. Duration of cigarette use and cumulative amount of cigarette use (pack-years) were not associated with prostate cancer risk for Blacks or Whites. By age, only the youngest subjects, aged 40 to 59 years, showed excess risk associated with current (OR=1.5, CI=1.0-2.3) and former (OR=1.7, CI=1.1-2.6) use of cigarettes, but there were no consistent patterns in this group according to amount or duration of smoking. Risks also were not elevated for former or current users of pipes, cigars, or chewing tobacco, but the risk associated with current snuff use was OR=5.5 (CI=1.2-26.2). This subgroup finding may have been due to chance. The results of the present study may be consistent with a small excess risk for prostate cancer associated with tobacco use, but the lack of consistent findings in population subgroups and the lack of a clear dose-response relationship argue more strongly that no causal association exists. The data do not indicate that the Black-White difference in prostate cancer risk is related to tobacco use.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)221-226
    Number of pages6
    JournalCancer Causes & Control
    Volume5
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    StatePublished - May 1 1994

    Fingerprint

    Tobacco Use
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Tobacco Products
    Odds Ratio
    Confidence Intervals
    Smokeless Tobacco
    Population
    hydroquinone
    Registries
    Case-Control Studies
    Smoking

    Keywords

    • Case control
    • United States
    • neoplasms
    • prostate
    • race
    • tobacco

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Oncology
    • Cancer Research

    Cite this

    Hayes, R. B., Pottern, L. M., Swanson, G. M., Liff, J. M., Schoenberg, J. B., Greenberg, R. S., ... Hoover, R. N. (1994). Tobacco use and prostate cancer in Blacks and Whites in the United States. Cancer Causes & Control, 5(3), 221-226. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01830240

    Tobacco use and prostate cancer in Blacks and Whites in the United States. / Hayes, Richard B.; Pottern, Linda M.; Swanson, G. Marie; Liff, Jonathan M.; Schoenberg, Janet B.; Greenberg, Raymond S.; Schwartz, Ann Grossbart; Brown, Linda Morris; Silverman, Debra T.; Hoover, Robert N.

    In: Cancer Causes & Control, Vol. 5, No. 3, 01.05.1994, p. 221-226.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Hayes, RB, Pottern, LM, Swanson, GM, Liff, JM, Schoenberg, JB, Greenberg, RS, Schwartz, AG, Brown, LM, Silverman, DT & Hoover, RN 1994, 'Tobacco use and prostate cancer in Blacks and Whites in the United States', Cancer Causes & Control, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 221-226. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01830240
    Hayes RB, Pottern LM, Swanson GM, Liff JM, Schoenberg JB, Greenberg RS et al. Tobacco use and prostate cancer in Blacks and Whites in the United States. Cancer Causes & Control. 1994 May 1;5(3):221-226. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01830240
    Hayes, Richard B. ; Pottern, Linda M. ; Swanson, G. Marie ; Liff, Jonathan M. ; Schoenberg, Janet B. ; Greenberg, Raymond S. ; Schwartz, Ann Grossbart ; Brown, Linda Morris ; Silverman, Debra T. ; Hoover, Robert N. / Tobacco use and prostate cancer in Blacks and Whites in the United States. In: Cancer Causes & Control. 1994 ; Vol. 5, No. 3. pp. 221-226.
    @article{c8d2afd6f6f1448887bb633105e1bbd1,
    title = "Tobacco use and prostate cancer in Blacks and Whites in the United States",
    abstract = "Prostate cancer occurs more frequently in Blacks than Whites in the United States. A population-based case-control study which investigated the association between tobacco use and prostate cancer risk was carried out among 981 pathologically confirmed cases (479 Blacks, 502 Whites) of prostate cancer, diagnosed between 1 August 1986 and 30 April 1989, and 1,315 controls (594 Blacks, 721 Whites). Study subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, resided in Atlanta (GA), Detroit (MI), and 10 counties in New Jersey, geographic areas covered by three, population-based, cancer registries. No excesses in risk for prostate cancer were seen for former cigarette smokers, in Blacks (odds ratio [OR]=1.1, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.7-1.5) and in Whites (OR=1.2, CI=0.9-1.6), or for current cigarette smokers, in Blacks (OR=1.0, CI=0.7-1.4) and in Whites (OR=1.2, CI=0.8-1.7). Increases in risk were noted for smokers of 40 or more cigarettes per day, among former (OR=1.4, CI=1.0-1.5) and current (OR=1.5, CI=1.0-2.4) smokers. Duration of cigarette use and cumulative amount of cigarette use (pack-years) were not associated with prostate cancer risk for Blacks or Whites. By age, only the youngest subjects, aged 40 to 59 years, showed excess risk associated with current (OR=1.5, CI=1.0-2.3) and former (OR=1.7, CI=1.1-2.6) use of cigarettes, but there were no consistent patterns in this group according to amount or duration of smoking. Risks also were not elevated for former or current users of pipes, cigars, or chewing tobacco, but the risk associated with current snuff use was OR=5.5 (CI=1.2-26.2). This subgroup finding may have been due to chance. The results of the present study may be consistent with a small excess risk for prostate cancer associated with tobacco use, but the lack of consistent findings in population subgroups and the lack of a clear dose-response relationship argue more strongly that no causal association exists. The data do not indicate that the Black-White difference in prostate cancer risk is related to tobacco use.",
    keywords = "Case control, United States, neoplasms, prostate, race, tobacco",
    author = "Hayes, {Richard B.} and Pottern, {Linda M.} and Swanson, {G. Marie} and Liff, {Jonathan M.} and Schoenberg, {Janet B.} and Greenberg, {Raymond S.} and Schwartz, {Ann Grossbart} and Brown, {Linda Morris} and Silverman, {Debra T.} and Hoover, {Robert N.}",
    year = "1994",
    month = "5",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1007/BF01830240",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "5",
    pages = "221--226",
    journal = "Cancer Causes and Control",
    issn = "0957-5243",
    publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
    number = "3",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Tobacco use and prostate cancer in Blacks and Whites in the United States

    AU - Hayes, Richard B.

    AU - Pottern, Linda M.

    AU - Swanson, G. Marie

    AU - Liff, Jonathan M.

    AU - Schoenberg, Janet B.

    AU - Greenberg, Raymond S.

    AU - Schwartz, Ann Grossbart

    AU - Brown, Linda Morris

    AU - Silverman, Debra T.

    AU - Hoover, Robert N.

    PY - 1994/5/1

    Y1 - 1994/5/1

    N2 - Prostate cancer occurs more frequently in Blacks than Whites in the United States. A population-based case-control study which investigated the association between tobacco use and prostate cancer risk was carried out among 981 pathologically confirmed cases (479 Blacks, 502 Whites) of prostate cancer, diagnosed between 1 August 1986 and 30 April 1989, and 1,315 controls (594 Blacks, 721 Whites). Study subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, resided in Atlanta (GA), Detroit (MI), and 10 counties in New Jersey, geographic areas covered by three, population-based, cancer registries. No excesses in risk for prostate cancer were seen for former cigarette smokers, in Blacks (odds ratio [OR]=1.1, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.7-1.5) and in Whites (OR=1.2, CI=0.9-1.6), or for current cigarette smokers, in Blacks (OR=1.0, CI=0.7-1.4) and in Whites (OR=1.2, CI=0.8-1.7). Increases in risk were noted for smokers of 40 or more cigarettes per day, among former (OR=1.4, CI=1.0-1.5) and current (OR=1.5, CI=1.0-2.4) smokers. Duration of cigarette use and cumulative amount of cigarette use (pack-years) were not associated with prostate cancer risk for Blacks or Whites. By age, only the youngest subjects, aged 40 to 59 years, showed excess risk associated with current (OR=1.5, CI=1.0-2.3) and former (OR=1.7, CI=1.1-2.6) use of cigarettes, but there were no consistent patterns in this group according to amount or duration of smoking. Risks also were not elevated for former or current users of pipes, cigars, or chewing tobacco, but the risk associated with current snuff use was OR=5.5 (CI=1.2-26.2). This subgroup finding may have been due to chance. The results of the present study may be consistent with a small excess risk for prostate cancer associated with tobacco use, but the lack of consistent findings in population subgroups and the lack of a clear dose-response relationship argue more strongly that no causal association exists. The data do not indicate that the Black-White difference in prostate cancer risk is related to tobacco use.

    AB - Prostate cancer occurs more frequently in Blacks than Whites in the United States. A population-based case-control study which investigated the association between tobacco use and prostate cancer risk was carried out among 981 pathologically confirmed cases (479 Blacks, 502 Whites) of prostate cancer, diagnosed between 1 August 1986 and 30 April 1989, and 1,315 controls (594 Blacks, 721 Whites). Study subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, resided in Atlanta (GA), Detroit (MI), and 10 counties in New Jersey, geographic areas covered by three, population-based, cancer registries. No excesses in risk for prostate cancer were seen for former cigarette smokers, in Blacks (odds ratio [OR]=1.1, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.7-1.5) and in Whites (OR=1.2, CI=0.9-1.6), or for current cigarette smokers, in Blacks (OR=1.0, CI=0.7-1.4) and in Whites (OR=1.2, CI=0.8-1.7). Increases in risk were noted for smokers of 40 or more cigarettes per day, among former (OR=1.4, CI=1.0-1.5) and current (OR=1.5, CI=1.0-2.4) smokers. Duration of cigarette use and cumulative amount of cigarette use (pack-years) were not associated with prostate cancer risk for Blacks or Whites. By age, only the youngest subjects, aged 40 to 59 years, showed excess risk associated with current (OR=1.5, CI=1.0-2.3) and former (OR=1.7, CI=1.1-2.6) use of cigarettes, but there were no consistent patterns in this group according to amount or duration of smoking. Risks also were not elevated for former or current users of pipes, cigars, or chewing tobacco, but the risk associated with current snuff use was OR=5.5 (CI=1.2-26.2). This subgroup finding may have been due to chance. The results of the present study may be consistent with a small excess risk for prostate cancer associated with tobacco use, but the lack of consistent findings in population subgroups and the lack of a clear dose-response relationship argue more strongly that no causal association exists. The data do not indicate that the Black-White difference in prostate cancer risk is related to tobacco use.

    KW - Case control

    KW - United States

    KW - neoplasms

    KW - prostate

    KW - race

    KW - tobacco

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028229448&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028229448&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1007/BF01830240

    DO - 10.1007/BF01830240

    M3 - Article

    C2 - 8061169

    AN - SCOPUS:0028229448

    VL - 5

    SP - 221

    EP - 226

    JO - Cancer Causes and Control

    JF - Cancer Causes and Control

    SN - 0957-5243

    IS - 3

    ER -