Toward a definition of masked hypertension and white-coat hypertension Among hemodialysis patients

Rajiv Agarwal, Arjun D. Sinha, Robert P. Light

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Abstract

Background and objectives Among people with essential hypertension, ambulatory BP measurement is superior to BP obtained in the clinic in predicting cardiovascular outcomes. In part, this is because it can detect white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension. Whether the same is true for hemodialysis patients is not known. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using a threshold of 140/80 mmHg for median midweek dialysis- unit BP and 135/85 mmHg for 44-hour ambulatory BP, we defined four categories of BP: sustained normotension (SN), white-coat hypertension (WCH), masked hypertension (MHTN), and sustained hypertension (SHTN). Results Among 355 long-term hemodialysis patients, the prevalence of SN was 35%, WCH 15%, MHTN 15%, and SHTN 35%. Over a mean follow-up of 29.6 (SD 21.7) months, 102 patients died (29%), yielding a crude mortality rate of 121/1000 patient-years. Unadjusted and multivariate-adjusted analyses showed increasing all-cause mortality with increasing severity of hypertension (unadjusted hazard ratios from SN, WCH, MHTN, SHTN: 1, 1.12, 1.70, 1.80, respectively [P for trend < 0.01]; adjusted hazard ratios: 1, 1.30, 1.36, 1.87, respectively [P for trend 0.02]). When a predialysis BP threshold of 140/90 mmHg was used to classify patients into BP categories, the prevalence of SN was 24%, WCH 26%, MHTN 4%, and SHTN 47%. Hazard ratios for mortality were similar when compared with median midweek dialysis-unit BP. Conclusions As in the essential hypertension population, MHTN and WCH have prognostic significance. The prognostic value of BP obtained in the dialysis unit can be refined with ambulatory BP monitoring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2003-2008
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume6
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2011

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Masked Hypertension
White Coat Hypertension
Renal Dialysis
Hypertension
Dialysis
Mortality
Ambulatory Monitoring
Multivariate Analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

Cite this

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title = "Toward a definition of masked hypertension and white-coat hypertension Among hemodialysis patients",
abstract = "Background and objectives Among people with essential hypertension, ambulatory BP measurement is superior to BP obtained in the clinic in predicting cardiovascular outcomes. In part, this is because it can detect white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension. Whether the same is true for hemodialysis patients is not known. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using a threshold of 140/80 mmHg for median midweek dialysis- unit BP and 135/85 mmHg for 44-hour ambulatory BP, we defined four categories of BP: sustained normotension (SN), white-coat hypertension (WCH), masked hypertension (MHTN), and sustained hypertension (SHTN). Results Among 355 long-term hemodialysis patients, the prevalence of SN was 35{\%}, WCH 15{\%}, MHTN 15{\%}, and SHTN 35{\%}. Over a mean follow-up of 29.6 (SD 21.7) months, 102 patients died (29{\%}), yielding a crude mortality rate of 121/1000 patient-years. Unadjusted and multivariate-adjusted analyses showed increasing all-cause mortality with increasing severity of hypertension (unadjusted hazard ratios from SN, WCH, MHTN, SHTN: 1, 1.12, 1.70, 1.80, respectively [P for trend < 0.01]; adjusted hazard ratios: 1, 1.30, 1.36, 1.87, respectively [P for trend 0.02]). When a predialysis BP threshold of 140/90 mmHg was used to classify patients into BP categories, the prevalence of SN was 24{\%}, WCH 26{\%}, MHTN 4{\%}, and SHTN 47{\%}. Hazard ratios for mortality were similar when compared with median midweek dialysis-unit BP. Conclusions As in the essential hypertension population, MHTN and WCH have prognostic significance. The prognostic value of BP obtained in the dialysis unit can be refined with ambulatory BP monitoring.",
author = "Rajiv Agarwal and Sinha, {Arjun D.} and Light, {Robert P.}",
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AU - Sinha, Arjun D.

AU - Light, Robert P.

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N2 - Background and objectives Among people with essential hypertension, ambulatory BP measurement is superior to BP obtained in the clinic in predicting cardiovascular outcomes. In part, this is because it can detect white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension. Whether the same is true for hemodialysis patients is not known. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using a threshold of 140/80 mmHg for median midweek dialysis- unit BP and 135/85 mmHg for 44-hour ambulatory BP, we defined four categories of BP: sustained normotension (SN), white-coat hypertension (WCH), masked hypertension (MHTN), and sustained hypertension (SHTN). Results Among 355 long-term hemodialysis patients, the prevalence of SN was 35%, WCH 15%, MHTN 15%, and SHTN 35%. Over a mean follow-up of 29.6 (SD 21.7) months, 102 patients died (29%), yielding a crude mortality rate of 121/1000 patient-years. Unadjusted and multivariate-adjusted analyses showed increasing all-cause mortality with increasing severity of hypertension (unadjusted hazard ratios from SN, WCH, MHTN, SHTN: 1, 1.12, 1.70, 1.80, respectively [P for trend < 0.01]; adjusted hazard ratios: 1, 1.30, 1.36, 1.87, respectively [P for trend 0.02]). When a predialysis BP threshold of 140/90 mmHg was used to classify patients into BP categories, the prevalence of SN was 24%, WCH 26%, MHTN 4%, and SHTN 47%. Hazard ratios for mortality were similar when compared with median midweek dialysis-unit BP. Conclusions As in the essential hypertension population, MHTN and WCH have prognostic significance. The prognostic value of BP obtained in the dialysis unit can be refined with ambulatory BP monitoring.

AB - Background and objectives Among people with essential hypertension, ambulatory BP measurement is superior to BP obtained in the clinic in predicting cardiovascular outcomes. In part, this is because it can detect white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension. Whether the same is true for hemodialysis patients is not known. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using a threshold of 140/80 mmHg for median midweek dialysis- unit BP and 135/85 mmHg for 44-hour ambulatory BP, we defined four categories of BP: sustained normotension (SN), white-coat hypertension (WCH), masked hypertension (MHTN), and sustained hypertension (SHTN). Results Among 355 long-term hemodialysis patients, the prevalence of SN was 35%, WCH 15%, MHTN 15%, and SHTN 35%. Over a mean follow-up of 29.6 (SD 21.7) months, 102 patients died (29%), yielding a crude mortality rate of 121/1000 patient-years. Unadjusted and multivariate-adjusted analyses showed increasing all-cause mortality with increasing severity of hypertension (unadjusted hazard ratios from SN, WCH, MHTN, SHTN: 1, 1.12, 1.70, 1.80, respectively [P for trend < 0.01]; adjusted hazard ratios: 1, 1.30, 1.36, 1.87, respectively [P for trend 0.02]). When a predialysis BP threshold of 140/90 mmHg was used to classify patients into BP categories, the prevalence of SN was 24%, WCH 26%, MHTN 4%, and SHTN 47%. Hazard ratios for mortality were similar when compared with median midweek dialysis-unit BP. Conclusions As in the essential hypertension population, MHTN and WCH have prognostic significance. The prognostic value of BP obtained in the dialysis unit can be refined with ambulatory BP monitoring.

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