Posttransplant Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative disease (PT-LPD) is a common and often fatal complication following solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PT-LPD following solid organ transplantation generally occurs in B cells of recipient origin in contrast to PT-LPD in marrow transplant recipients, which is exclusively of donor origin. The efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy using donor leukocytes to treat PT-LPD in bone marrow transplant recipients has recently been reported. Because PT-LPD in solid organ transplant recipients is generally of recipient origin, the potential application of adoptive immunotherapy of PT-LPD in solid organ recipients obligates the use of either autologous or allogeneic HLA identical leukocytes, with the attendant risk of organ rejection if cells mismatched with the transplanted organ are used. Nonirradiated allogeneic mononuclear cells from an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seropositive, HLA- identical normal sibling were used to treat a monoclonal EBV lymphoma of recipient origin in the central nervous system of a child who had undergone an HLA-mismatched cadaveric lung transplant. The patient received three separate mononuclear cell infusions over a 9-month period, each containing 1 x 106 CD3+ mononuclear cells per kilogram. Complete clinical, radiological, and pathological remission was achieved with this treatment regimen. The response correlated with in vivo reconstitution of normal EBV-specific cytotoxic activity and cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor frequency. Use of allogeneic HLA-compatible mononuclear cells may thus offer an additional mode of therapy for EBV-related lymphoproliferative disease in selected solid organ transplant recipients refractory to conventional therapies.
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