Bone is a common site of cancer metastasis. Breast, prostate, and lung cancers show a predilection to metastasize to bone. Recently, we reported that the chemokine interleukin 8 (IL-8) stimulates both human osteoclast formation and bone resorption. IL-8 mRNA expression was surveyed in a panel of human breast cancer lines MDA-MET, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, MCF-7, T47D, and ZR-75, and the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. IL-8 mRNA expression was higher in cell lines with higher osteolytic potential in vivo. Human osteoclast formation was increased by MDA-MET or A549 cell-conditioned medium, but not by MDA-MB-231. Pharmacologic doses of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK)-Fc or osteoprotogerin had no effect on the pro-osteoclastogenic activity of the conditioned medium; however, osteoclast formation stimulated by conditioned medium was inhibited 60% by an IL-8-specific neutralizing antibody. The data support a model in which tumor cells cause osteolytic bone destruction independently of the RANK ligand (RANKL) pathway. Tumor-produced IL-8 is a major contributor to this process. The role of secreted IL-8 isoforms was examined by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, which detected distinct IL-8 isoforms secreted by MDA-MET and MDA-231 cells, suggesting different pro-osteoclastogenic activities of the two IL-8-derived peptides. These data indicate that (a) osteoclast formation induced by MDA-MET breast cancer cells and A549 adenocarcinoma cells is primarily mediated by IL-8, (b) cell-specific isoforms of IL-8 with distinct osteoclastogenic activities are produced by tumor cells, and (c) tumor cells that support osteoclast formation independent of RANKL secrete other pro-osteoclastogenic factors in addition to IL-8.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research