Twenty-four-hour urine phosphorus as a biomarker of dietary phosphorus intake and absorption in CKD: A secondary analysis from a controlled diet balance study

Elizabeth R. Stremke, Linda D. McCabe, George P. McCabe, Berdine R. Martin, Sharon M. Moe, Connie M. Weaver, Munro Peacock, Kathleen M. Hill Gallant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background and objectives Twenty-four-hour urine phosphorus is commonly used as a surrogate measure for phosphorus intake and absorption in research studies, but its reliability and accuracy are unproven in health or CKD. This secondary analysis sought to determine the reliability and accuracy of 24-hour urine phosphorus as a biomarker of phosphorus intake and absorption in moderate CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Eight patients with stage 3–4 CKD participated in 2-week balance studies with tightly controlled phosphorus and calcium intakes. Thirteen 24-hour urine collections per patient were analyzed for variability and reliability of 24-hour urine phosphorus and phosphorus-to-creatinine ratio. The accuracy of 24-hour urine phosphorus to predict phosphorus intake was determined using a published equation. The relationships of 24-hour urine phosphorus with phosphorus intake, net absorption, and retention were determined. Results There was wide day-to-day variation in 24-hour urine phosphorus within and among subjects (coefficient of variation of 30% and 37%, respectively). Two 24-hour urine measures were needed to achieve ≥75% reliability. Estimating dietary phosphorus intake from a single 24-hour urine resulted in underestimation up to 98% in some patients and overestimation up to 79% in others. Twenty-four-hour urine phosphorus negatively correlated with whole-body retention but was not related to net absorption. Conclusions From a sample of eight patients with moderate CKD on a tightly controlled dietary intake, 24-hour urine phosphorus was highly variable and did not relate to dietary phosphorus intake or absorption, rather it inversely related to phosphorus retention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1002-1012
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume13
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 6 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

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