Objective: To further analyze calcium tartrate tetrahydrate stones after a recent case report described this novel stone. Prior to this, there was only one previously reported occurrence of this stone in a human. This unusual stone composition is not tested for routinely. True prevalence and possible causes of this stone are unknown. Materials/Methods: During the previous case report, micro-CT and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used to identify a calcium tartrate tetrahydrate stone. This information was applied to urinary stones with previously unidentified compositions in the Mayo Metals laboratory database between 2010 and March 2018. Two additional stones were identified at our institution. Three patients had medical records available for analysis. Results: Between 2010 and March 2018, 35 calcium tartrate stones in 25 patients were identified in the Mayo database as well as 2 at our institution (37 stones in 27 patients). Thirty stones were pure calcium tartrate with the remainder having elements of more common stones. The average age was 46.3 (±14.7) with a slightly higher incidence in females (17 vs 10). Of the 3 medical records investigated, all 3 were males (average age 48.7), and each reported consumption of an energy supplement (Spark) routinely. Conclusion: The true prevalence of this relatively unknown stone remains unclear and additional investigation is warranted. We believe all stone laboratories should have access to the IR spectra for calcium tartrate tetrahydrate. Attention should be paid to possible causes of this stone, particularly with relation to oral supplements, to aid with future prevention and treatment.
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