Under- and overreporting of energy intake using urinary cations as biomarkers: Relation to body mass index

Jianjun Zhang, Elisabeth H.M. Temme, Satoshi Sasaki, Hugo Kesteloot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

69 Scopus citations

Abstract

Under- and overreporting of energy intake in relation to body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) were examined by using 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium as biomarkers. The data were obtained from 2,124 men and 1,998 women aged 25-74 years who participated in the 1981-1984 Belgian Interuniversity Research on Nutrition and Health study conducted in Belgium. The ratios of dietary intake to urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, as a measure for relative underreporting, were inversely associated with BMI (for men, β = -0.019 for sodium ratio and β = -0.026 for potassium ratio; for women, β = -0.017 for sodium ratio and β = -0.019 for potassium ratio; all p < 0.0001) independent of age, smoking, alcohol intake, and educational level. Since 77% of dietary potassium was reported to be excreted in the urine, subjects for whom the (dietary potassium x 0.77)/urinary potassium ratio was <1 were considered underreporters and >1 as overreporters. The percentage of underreporters increased with increasing pooled sex-specific deciles of BMI (β = 1.88, p < 0.0001) and was higher than the percentage of overreporters in 13 of 20 deciles. At a BMI of 25.4, the percentage of under- and overreporters equalized. In conclusion, the relative underreporting of energy intake and the percentage of underreporters increased with increasing BMI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)453-462
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Volume152
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2000

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Keywords

  • Biological markers
  • Body mass index
  • Cations
  • Energy intake
  • Nutrition assessment
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

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