Updates on the epidemiology and risk factors for penile cancer

Antoin Douglawi, Timothy A. Masterson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

34 Scopus citations


Penile cancer is a rare neoplasm representing less than 1% of all malignancies in the USA and Europe but is a significant public health hazard in the developing world. Male neonatal circumcision has been associated with a dramatic decrease in penile cancer rates with countries such as Israel, where circumcision is widely performed, having the lowest incidence in the world at < 0.1% of malignancies. Many risk factors have been identified for penile cancer including phimosis, lack of circumcision, obesity, lichen sclerosis, chronic inflammation, smoking, UVA phototherapy, socioeconomic status, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and immune compromised states. The relationship between these factors and invasive disease varies and continues to be investigated. Our objective was to present a contemporary overview of the epidemiology and risk factors for invasive penile cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)785-790
Number of pages6
JournalTranslational Andrology and Urology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017


  • Circumcision
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Penile cancer
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Urology

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