Upper limit of vulnerability reliably predicts the defibrillation threshold in humans

Chun Hwang, Charles D. Swerdlow, Robert M. Kass, Eli S. Gang, William J. Mandel, C. Thomas Peter, Peng-Sheng Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

78 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The upper limit of vulnerability is the stimulus strength above which electrical stimulation cannot induce ventricular fibrillation even when the stimulus occurs during the vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the upper limit of vulnerability can accurately predict the defibrillation threshold in patients undergoing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation using nonthoracotomy lead systems. Methods and Results: We studied 77 patients at the time of ICD implantation. Multiple endocardial-endocardial and endocardial-subcutaneous shock pathways were used. Two different protocols were used to test the upper limit of vulnerability. In protocol 1 (n=17), the upper limit of vulnerability was tested with two shocks on the peak or the up-slope of the T wave of paced rhythm. The shocks were given randomly either at the peak and 20 milliseconds before the peak of T wave (n=7) or at 20 and 40 milliseconds before the peak of T wave (n=10). In protocol 2 (n=60), the upper limit of vulnerability was tested with three shocks delivered at 0, 20, and 40 milliseconds before the peak of the T wave. The weakest shock that failed to induce ventricular fibrillation by a 5-J step-down or step-up method was defined as the upper limit of vulnerability. The defibrillation threshold was also determined by a 5-J step-down or step- up method. In protocol 1, the upper limit of vulnerability (9±6 J) was significantly lower than the defibrillation threshold (13±7 J) with a correlation coefficient of .87 and P10 J in 8 patients and underestimated the defibrillation threshold by >10 J in only 1 patient. The overestimation and underestimation occurred only in patients with the upper limit of vulnerability >15 J. Conclusions: When tested with three shocks on and before the peak of the T wave, the upper limit of vulnerability accurately predicted the defibrillation threshold in patients undergoing ICD implantation using nonthoracotomy lead systems. This method required either one or no episodes of ventricular fibrillation in most patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2308-2314
Number of pages7
JournalCirculation
Volume90
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1994
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Shock
Implantable Defibrillators
Ventricular Fibrillation
Electric Stimulation
Lead

Keywords

  • cardioverter-defibrillators
  • defibrillation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Hwang, C., Swerdlow, C. D., Kass, R. M., Gang, E. S., Mandel, W. J., Peter, C. T., & Chen, P-S. (1994). Upper limit of vulnerability reliably predicts the defibrillation threshold in humans. Circulation, 90(5), 2308-2314.

Upper limit of vulnerability reliably predicts the defibrillation threshold in humans. / Hwang, Chun; Swerdlow, Charles D.; Kass, Robert M.; Gang, Eli S.; Mandel, William J.; Peter, C. Thomas; Chen, Peng-Sheng.

In: Circulation, Vol. 90, No. 5, 11.1994, p. 2308-2314.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hwang, C, Swerdlow, CD, Kass, RM, Gang, ES, Mandel, WJ, Peter, CT & Chen, P-S 1994, 'Upper limit of vulnerability reliably predicts the defibrillation threshold in humans', Circulation, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 2308-2314.
Hwang C, Swerdlow CD, Kass RM, Gang ES, Mandel WJ, Peter CT et al. Upper limit of vulnerability reliably predicts the defibrillation threshold in humans. Circulation. 1994 Nov;90(5):2308-2314.
Hwang, Chun ; Swerdlow, Charles D. ; Kass, Robert M. ; Gang, Eli S. ; Mandel, William J. ; Peter, C. Thomas ; Chen, Peng-Sheng. / Upper limit of vulnerability reliably predicts the defibrillation threshold in humans. In: Circulation. 1994 ; Vol. 90, No. 5. pp. 2308-2314.
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N2 - Background: The upper limit of vulnerability is the stimulus strength above which electrical stimulation cannot induce ventricular fibrillation even when the stimulus occurs during the vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the upper limit of vulnerability can accurately predict the defibrillation threshold in patients undergoing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation using nonthoracotomy lead systems. Methods and Results: We studied 77 patients at the time of ICD implantation. Multiple endocardial-endocardial and endocardial-subcutaneous shock pathways were used. Two different protocols were used to test the upper limit of vulnerability. In protocol 1 (n=17), the upper limit of vulnerability was tested with two shocks on the peak or the up-slope of the T wave of paced rhythm. The shocks were given randomly either at the peak and 20 milliseconds before the peak of T wave (n=7) or at 20 and 40 milliseconds before the peak of T wave (n=10). In protocol 2 (n=60), the upper limit of vulnerability was tested with three shocks delivered at 0, 20, and 40 milliseconds before the peak of the T wave. The weakest shock that failed to induce ventricular fibrillation by a 5-J step-down or step-up method was defined as the upper limit of vulnerability. The defibrillation threshold was also determined by a 5-J step-down or step- up method. In protocol 1, the upper limit of vulnerability (9±6 J) was significantly lower than the defibrillation threshold (13±7 J) with a correlation coefficient of .87 and P10 J in 8 patients and underestimated the defibrillation threshold by >10 J in only 1 patient. The overestimation and underestimation occurred only in patients with the upper limit of vulnerability >15 J. Conclusions: When tested with three shocks on and before the peak of the T wave, the upper limit of vulnerability accurately predicted the defibrillation threshold in patients undergoing ICD implantation using nonthoracotomy lead systems. This method required either one or no episodes of ventricular fibrillation in most patients.

AB - Background: The upper limit of vulnerability is the stimulus strength above which electrical stimulation cannot induce ventricular fibrillation even when the stimulus occurs during the vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the upper limit of vulnerability can accurately predict the defibrillation threshold in patients undergoing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation using nonthoracotomy lead systems. Methods and Results: We studied 77 patients at the time of ICD implantation. Multiple endocardial-endocardial and endocardial-subcutaneous shock pathways were used. Two different protocols were used to test the upper limit of vulnerability. In protocol 1 (n=17), the upper limit of vulnerability was tested with two shocks on the peak or the up-slope of the T wave of paced rhythm. The shocks were given randomly either at the peak and 20 milliseconds before the peak of T wave (n=7) or at 20 and 40 milliseconds before the peak of T wave (n=10). In protocol 2 (n=60), the upper limit of vulnerability was tested with three shocks delivered at 0, 20, and 40 milliseconds before the peak of the T wave. The weakest shock that failed to induce ventricular fibrillation by a 5-J step-down or step-up method was defined as the upper limit of vulnerability. The defibrillation threshold was also determined by a 5-J step-down or step- up method. In protocol 1, the upper limit of vulnerability (9±6 J) was significantly lower than the defibrillation threshold (13±7 J) with a correlation coefficient of .87 and P10 J in 8 patients and underestimated the defibrillation threshold by >10 J in only 1 patient. The overestimation and underestimation occurred only in patients with the upper limit of vulnerability >15 J. Conclusions: When tested with three shocks on and before the peak of the T wave, the upper limit of vulnerability accurately predicted the defibrillation threshold in patients undergoing ICD implantation using nonthoracotomy lead systems. This method required either one or no episodes of ventricular fibrillation in most patients.

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